Presentation on theme: "HUMAN RELATIONS APPROACH This approach supports the idea that an important function of the school is to help students learn to live harmoniously in an."— Presentation transcript:
HUMAN RELATIONS APPROACH This approach supports the idea that an important function of the school is to help students learn to live harmoniously in an ever- changing, culturally diverse society. Proponents of the the Human Relations Approach believe that greater social equity will result if students learn to respect and appreciate each other regardless of race, gender, social class, or disability.
GOALS The main goal of this approach is to promote feelings of unity, tolerance, and acceptance among people. Central to the concept of promoting these kinds of positive attitudes are:
Group identity and pride for ethnic students Prejudice reduction Bias-free education Identification of similarities between and among various persons and groups Appreciation of differences
APPLICATION Teachers implement Human Relations activities to accomplish interpersonal and cross-cultural goals. These activities are, generally, in the areas of self- esteem, prejudice reduction, values clarification, and group process strategies.
THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS The theoretical foundations for the Human Relations Approach are found in general psychology and social psychology. Some theorists have emphasized the development of prejudice and stereotyping within individuals. Others have emphasized the development of prejudice and hostility between groups. Still others pay more attention to individual self-concept.
Prejudice Within Individuals Gordon Allport (1979) was one of the main theorists to write about the development of prejudice in individuals. Cognitive development theory Psychoanalytic theory
Prejudice Within Individuals: Cognitive Development Theory The mind must relate, simplify and organize new information on order for it to make sense: Early Childhood Children see differences early in life Children are learning language at same time Social meanings are added later Late Childhood Children overgeneralize and stereotype all things
Prejudice Within Individuals: Cognitive Development Theory The mind must relate, simplify and organize new information on order for it to make sense: As years go by Change of schema in order to make perceptions match reality Path of least resistance Those with limited exposure view non- stereotypical examples as “exceptions”
Prejudice Within Individuals: Cognitive Development Theory The mind must relate, simplify and organize new information on order for it to make sense: Perception plays a role Selects what will be seen Those who fit stereotype are easier to accept Dissonance Theory: When someone holds two cognitive structures that are incompatible The mind must make adjustments to lessen the dissonance
Prejudice Within Individuals: Psychoanalytic Theory The mind has urges and capacities that appear in feelings and needs Most remain at subconscious level Lack of success leads to frustration which leads to projection of feelings to others Development of hatred can be related to child- raising styles Children identify with parents and project parents’ feelings as desirable
Prejudice Within Individuals Attributes of a Mature Person 1 Characteristics of Maturity A. Extension of the sense of self B. Warm relating of self to others C. Emotional security (self-acceptance) D. Realistic perception, skills, assignments E. Self objectification: insight and humor F. Unifying philosophy of life
Prejudice and Hostility Between Groups Reference group theory, developed by Sherif and Sherif (1966) helps us to understand intergroup relations. According to this theory, all of us derive much of our identity from our association with others. We belong to a set of in- groups beginning with our own family during early childhood.
Prejudice and Hostility Between Groups During the course of their research the Sherifs observed that: When groups come in contact, they attempt to define and maintain group boundaries. They encourage group members to stay within the group and to remain loyal to the group. Individual group members begin to depict the group as superior to out-groups and try to convince one another in the group of this superiority.
Prejudice and Hostility Between Groups The Sherifs observed that hostility develops as soon as groups perceive themselves to be in competition with one another. The groups don’t actually need to be in competition with each other. Hostility and rejection occur when one group perceives the other to be in competition for something they want or believe should be theirs.
Self-Concept Theory Beane and Lipka (1986) identify four dimensions of the self-concept of a young person: Self as Member of a Family Self as Peer Self as a Student Self as a Person With Attributes
Infusion of the program into several subject areas School-wide program Use of diverse strategies which are student- focused Inclusion of the child’s real-life experiences Academic and social success for the child in the classroom
CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION Provide accurate cognitive information: comprehensive, free from stereotypes Employ group process strategies (use the group to educate its members). Involve students in role-playing and vicarious experiences. Provide social skills training and community action projects for students.
CREDITS This information is taken from: Sleeter and Grant. Making Choices for Multicultural Education. Fourth Edition. Merrill, 2003