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An Introduction to Multicultural Education James Banks 2002.

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1 An Introduction to Multicultural Education James Banks 2002

2 Dimensions and School Characteristics Five Dimensions: Five Dimensions: Content integration Content integration The knowledge construction process The knowledge construction process Prejudice reduction Prejudice reduction An equity pedagogy An equity pedagogy An empowering school culture and social structure An empowering school culture and social structure

3 Dimensions and School Characteristics Content Integration Content Integration The extent to which teachers use examples and content from a variety of cultures and groups to illustrate key concepts, principles, generalizations, and theories in their subject area or discipline. The extent to which teachers use examples and content from a variety of cultures and groups to illustrate key concepts, principles, generalizations, and theories in their subject area or discipline.

4 Dimensions and School Characteristics The Knowledge Construction Process The Knowledge Construction Process The extent to which teachers help students to understand, investigate, and determine how the implicit cultural perspectives, and biases within a discipline influence the ways in which knowledge is constructed within it. The extent to which teachers help students to understand, investigate, and determine how the implicit cultural perspectives, and biases within a discipline influence the ways in which knowledge is constructed within it.

5 Dimensions and School Characteristics Prejudice Reduction Prejudice Reduction The characteristics of students racial attitudes and how they can be modified by teaching methods and materials. The characteristics of students racial attitudes and how they can be modified by teaching methods and materials.

6 Dimensions and School Characteristics An Equity Pedagogy An Equity Pedagogy Teachers modify their teaching in ways that will facilitate the academic achievement of students from diverse racial, cultural, and social-class groups. Teachers modify their teaching in ways that will facilitate the academic achievement of students from diverse racial, cultural, and social-class groups.

7 Dimensions and School Characteristics An Empowering School Culture and Social Structure An Empowering School Culture and Social Structure A school culture that empowers students from diverse racial, ethnic, and cultural groups. A school culture that empowers students from diverse racial, ethnic, and cultural groups.

8 Eight Characteristics of a the Multicultural School 1. Attitudes, perceptions, and beliefs, and actions of the school staff 2. Formalized curriculum and course of study 3. Learning, teaching, and cultural styles favored by the school 4. Languages and dialects of the school

9 Eight Characteristics of a the Multicultural School 5.Instructional materials 6.Assessment and testing procedures 7.The school culture and the hidden curriculum 8.The counseling program

10 Curriculum Transformation Students and teachers make paradigm shifts and view the American and world experience from the perspectives of different racial, ethnic, cultural, and gender groups. Students and teachers make paradigm shifts and view the American and world experience from the perspectives of different racial, ethnic, cultural, and gender groups.

11 Curriculum Transformation Goal of multicultural education: Goal of multicultural education: 1. To increase educational equality for both gender groups, for students from diverse ethnic and cultural groups, and for exceptional students and 2. To develop the knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed to survive and function effectively in a diverse global world 3.To develop cross-cultural competencies

12 Curriculum Transformation Transformation of assumptions, beliefs, and structures, within schools regarding Transformation of assumptions, beliefs, and structures, within schools regarding 1.How students learn 2.Human abilities 3.The nature of knowledge

13 Curriculum Transformation Four levels of a transformed curriculum; Four levels of a transformed curriculum; 1. The contributions approach 2. The additive approach 3. The transformation approach 4. The social action approach

14 Curriculum Transformation The contributions approach The contributions approach Focuses on holidays, heroes, and discrete cultural elements

15 Curriculum Transformation The additive approach The additive approach Content, concepts, themes, and perspectives are added to the curriculum without changing its structure

16 Curriculum Transformation The transformation approach The transformation approach The structure of the curriculum is changed to enable students to view concepts, issues, events, and themes from the perspective of diverse ethnic and cultural groups.

17 Curriculum Transformation The social action approach The social action approach Students make decisions on important social issues and take actions to help solve them.

18 Curriculum Transformation Curriculum transformation teaches students to know, to care, and to act!


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