Presentation on theme: "Chapter 13 Middle Childhood: Social and Emotional Development"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 13 Middle Childhood: Social and Emotional Development
2 Middle Childhood: Social and Emotional Development Truth or Fiction? Children’s self-esteem tends to rise in middle childhood.Parents who are in conflict should stay together “for the sake of the children.”
3 Middle Childhood: Social and Emotional Development Truth or Fiction? The daughters of employed women are more achievement-oriented and set themselves higher career goals than the daughters of unemployed women.In middle childhood, popular children tend to be attractive and relatively mature for their age.
4 Middle Childhood: Social and Emotional Development Truth or Fiction? Teachers who have higher expectations of students may elicit greater achievements from them.Teachers are more likely to accept calling out in class from boys than girls.
5 Middle Childhood: Social and Emotional Development Truth or Fiction? Some children—like some adults—blame themselves for all the problems in their lives whether they deserve the blame or not.It is better for children with school phobia to remain at home until the origins of the problem are uncovered and resolved.
6 Theories of Social and Emotional Development in Middle Childhood
7 What Are Some Features of Social and Emotional Development in Middle Childhood? Psychoanalytic TheoryFreud’s latency periodErikson’s industry versus inferioritySocial Cognitive TheoryDepend less on external rewards and punishmentsIncrease regulation of their behaviorCognitive-Developmental TheoryDecrease in egocentrismCapacity to see the perspective of others
8 What Is the Relationship Between Social Cognition and Perspective Taking? Development of knowledge about the worldUnderstanding relationship between self and othersChildren progress through five levels of perspective taking
9 How Does Self-Concept Develop in Middle Childhood? Focus on external (appearance) to internal characteristicsSocial relationships and group memberships are significant
11 Lessons in Observation: The Self-Concept When asked to describe themselves by telling three things about themselves, the responses of Todd and Christopher are very different from the response of Rachel, Stephanie, and Ricardo. How do each of these children describe themselves?Based on these self-descriptions, how old would you estimate the children to be? Why?
12 Lessons in Observation: The Self-Concept What evidence of social comparison is present in the response of the children in the video?How are social comparisons related to a child’s self-esteem?
13 Lessons in Observation: The Self-Concept When do children begin to incorporate psychological traits into their self-descriptions?How does this relate to cognitive development?Do the children in the video show age-related differences in their descriptions of themselves?In what ways does self-concept typically change over the course of middle childhood?
14 How Does Self-Esteem Develop in Middle Childhood? Competence and social acceptance contribute to self-esteemAs children begin self appraisal, self-esteem initially declinesGender differences in self-esteemGirls—higher on reading and academicsBoys—higher on math, physical ability and physical appearanceInfluences on self-esteemParenting styleRelationship to parentsSocial acceptance by peers
15 What Is Learned Helplessness, and How Does It Develop? Acquired belief one cannot obtain rewards“Helpless child” quits following failureDoubt ability and believe success is based on abilitySex and Learned HelplessnessGirls feel more helpless in math and science than business
17 What Kinds of Influences Are Exerted by the Family During Middle Childhood? Parent-Child RelationshipsFocus on school-related matters, chores, peer activitiesCoregulation—transfer of control from parent to childView parents as main source of emotional support
18 What Kinds of Influences Are Exerted by the Family During Middle Childhood?
19 What Are the Effects of Having Lesbian or Gay Parents? Research focusPsychological adjustmentComparable to children of heterosexual parentsSexual orientationPrefer toys, clothing and friends typical for their sex and ageGenerally heterosexual orientation
20 What Are the Effects of Divorce on Children? Divorce impacts all aspects of family lifeDifficult to isolate effects of divorceChildren of divorceExperience multiple sources of anxietyExperience greatest impact during first yearBoys seem to have more difficulty adjustingDecline in quality of parenting and financial statusRole of status of mother related to child’s well-being
21 Life in Stepfamilies No conclusive effects of living in stepfamilies Unique risks in stepfamiliesInfanticide occurs 60 times more often in stepfamiliesSlightly higher incidence of sexual abuse
22 Should Parents Who Bicker Remain Together for the Children? Parental conflictLinked to problems similar to divorceAdjustment problemsPresent in children of divorceMay be greater in children living with parental conflict
23 What Are the Effects of Maternal Employment on Children? Greatest concern is lack of supervisionNo evidence of negative effectsSome indication of positive effectsGreater independence, responsibility and competenceMore flexible gender roles
25 What Is the Impact of Peers During Middle Childhood? Socialization InfluenceIncreasing importance of peersExert pressure to conformBroaden childrenDifference relating to parents versus peersSome indication of positive effectsPeers provide “real-world” practice
26 What Are the Characteristics of Popular and Rejected Children? Popular ChildrenTend to be attractive and mature for ageSocially skilledHave higher self-esteem and successRejected ChildrenShow behavioral and learning problemsAre aggressive and disruptive
27 How Do Children’s Concepts of Friendship Develop? Early Middle ChildhoodFriendships based on proximity, shared activities8- to 11-year oldsFriends are nice to each other and trustworthyPick friends similar in personality and behaviorTends to be segregated by sexGirls develop closer friendships
29 What Are the Effects of School on Children’s Social and Emotional Development? Entry into schoolSchool experience makes multiple demands on childrenSchool readiness is determined byChild’s early life experiencesChild’s development and learningReasonable expectations for studentsPoor health care and lack of support put students at risk
30 What Are the Characteristics of a Good School? Effective schools haveEnergetic leadershipEmpowered teachers and studentsOrderly atmosphereAcademic curriculum with frequent assessmentHigh expectations for studentsSimilar class size
31 Bullying—An Epidemic of Misbehavior and Fear A Closer LookBullying—An Epidemic of Misbehavior and Fear
32 The Influence of Teachers On student performanceTeacher’s behaviorEmotional climate of classroomTeacher expectationsExpectations can become self-fulfilling prophesiesSexism in the classroomGirls are treated unequally by teachers, peers, tests, and curriculum
34 What Are Conduct Disorders Child consistently breaks rules or violates rights of othersEmerge around age 8, more prevalent in boysTend to endureOrigins of conduct disorderGenetic componentInconsistent discipline, antisocial family members, deviant peersTreatment of conduct disordersCognitive behavioral techniques involving parent trainingTeach children social, coping and problem-solving skills
35 What Is Depression? Depressed children Origins of depression Show poor appetite, insomnia, difficulty concentratingLoss of self-esteem and interest in people and activities they enjoyFeel hopeless and show thoughts of suicideOrigins of depressionLow levels of social and academic competenceStressful life events and poor problem solvingAttribute failures to internal, stable and global factorsTreatment of depressionPsychotherapyAntidepressants
36 What Is Separation Anxiety Disorder? Persistent and excessive separation anxietyInappropriate for developmental levelInterferes with activitiesChildren with SADCling to parents and may refuse to attend school
37 What Are the Connections Between Separation Anxiety Disorder, School Phobia, and School Refusal? SAD may be expressed as school phobiaSchool phobia—fear of school or refusal to attendMay occur outside of presence of SADSchool refusalMay occur for reasons other than fear or anxietyTreatmentsGet the child to attend schoolCognitive-behavioral approachesAntidepressant medication
38 Developing in a World of Diversity Problems? No Problem.(For Some Children.)