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Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 13 Chapter 13 Middle Childhood: Social and Emotional Development.

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Presentation on theme: "Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 13 Chapter 13 Middle Childhood: Social and Emotional Development."— Presentation transcript:

1 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 13 Chapter 13 Middle Childhood: Social and Emotional Development

2 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 13 Children’s self-esteem tends to rise in middle childhood. Parents who are in conflict should stay together “for the sake of the children.” Middle Childhood: Social and Emotional Development Truth or Fiction?

3 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 13 The daughters of employed women are more achievement- oriented and set themselves higher career goals than the daughters of unemployed women. In middle childhood, popular children tend to be attractive and relatively mature for their age. Middle Childhood: Social and Emotional Development Truth or Fiction?

4 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 13 Teachers who have higher expectations of students may elicit greater achievements from them. Teachers are more likely to accept calling out in class from boys than girls. Middle Childhood: Social and Emotional Development Truth or Fiction?

5 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 13 Some children—like some adults—blame themselves for all the problems in their lives whether they deserve the blame or not. It is better for children with school phobia to remain at home until the origins of the problem are uncovered and resolved. Middle Childhood: Social and Emotional Development Truth or Fiction?

6 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 13 Theories of Social and Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

7 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 13 What Are Some Features of Social and Emotional Development in Middle Childhood? Psychoanalytic Theory –Freud’s latency period –Erikson’s industry versus inferiority Social Cognitive Theory –Depend less on external rewards and punishments –Increase regulation of their behavior Cognitive-Developmental Theory –Decrease in egocentrism –Capacity to see the perspective of others

8 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 13 What Is the Relationship Between Social Cognition and Perspective Taking? Social cognition –Development of knowledge about the world –Understanding relationship between self and others Children progress through five levels of perspective taking

9 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 13 Focus on external (appearance) to internal characteristics Social relationships and group memberships are significant How Does Self-Concept Develop in Middle Childhood?

10 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 13 Lessons in Observation: The Self-Concept

11 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 13 Lessons in Observation: The Self-Concept When asked to describe themselves by telling three things about themselves, the responses of Todd and Christopher are very different from the response of Rachel, Stephanie, and Ricardo. How do each of these children describe themselves? –Based on these self-descriptions, how old would you estimate the children to be? Why?

12 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 13 Lessons in Observation: The Self-Concept What evidence of social comparison is present in the response of the children in the video? –How are social comparisons related to a child’s self-esteem?

13 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 13 Lessons in Observation: The Self-Concept When do children begin to incorporate psychological traits into their self-descriptions? –How does this relate to cognitive development? Do the children in the video show age-related differences in their descriptions of themselves? –In what ways does self-concept typically change over the course of middle childhood?

14 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 13 How Does Self-Esteem Develop in Middle Childhood? Competence and social acceptance contribute to self-esteem –As children begin self appraisal, self-esteem initially declines Gender differences in self-esteem –Girls—higher on reading and academics –Boys—higher on math, physical ability and physical appearance Influences on self-esteem –Parenting style –Relationship to parents –Social acceptance by peers

15 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 13 What Is Learned Helplessness, and How Does It Develop? Acquired belief one cannot obtain rewards –“Helpless child” quits following failure –Doubt ability and believe success is based on ability Sex and Learned Helplessness –Girls feel more helpless in math and science than business

16 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 13 The Family

17 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 13 Parent-Child Relationships –Focus on school-related matters, chores, peer activities –Coregulation—transfer of control from parent to child –View parents as main source of emotional support What Kinds of Influences Are Exerted by the Family During Middle Childhood?

18 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 13 What Kinds of Influences Are Exerted by the Family During Middle Childhood?

19 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 13 What Are the Effects of Having Lesbian or Gay Parents? Research focus –Psychological adjustment Comparable to children of heterosexual parents –Sexual orientation Prefer toys, clothing and friends typical for their sex and age Generally heterosexual orientation

20 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 13 What Are the Effects of Divorce on Children? Divorce impacts all aspects of family life –Difficult to isolate effects of divorce Children of divorce –Experience multiple sources of anxiety –Experience greatest impact during first year –Boys seem to have more difficulty adjusting Decline in quality of parenting and financial status Role of status of mother related to child’s well-being

21 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 13 Life in Stepfamilies No conclusive effects of living in stepfamilies Unique risks in stepfamilies –Infanticide occurs 60 times more often in stepfamilies –Slightly higher incidence of sexual abuse

22 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 13 Parental conflict –Linked to problems similar to divorce Adjustment problems –Present in children of divorce –May be greater in children living with parental conflict Should Parents Who Bicker Remain Together for the Children?

23 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 13 Greatest concern is lack of supervision No evidence of negative effects Some indication of positive effects –Greater independence, responsibility and competence –More flexible gender roles What Are the Effects of Maternal Employment on Children?

24 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 13 Peer Relationships

25 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 13 Socialization Influence –Increasing importance of peers –Exert pressure to conform –Broaden children Difference relating to parents versus peers Some indication of positive effects –Peers provide “real-world” practice What Is the Impact of Peers During Middle Childhood?

26 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 13 Popular Children –Tend to be attractive and mature for age –Socially skilled –Have higher self-esteem and success Rejected Children –Show behavioral and learning problems –Are aggressive and disruptive What Are the Characteristics of Popular and Rejected Children?

27 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 13 Early Middle Childhood –Friendships based on proximity, shared activities 8- to 11-year olds –Friends are nice to each other and trustworthy –Pick friends similar in personality and behavior Tends to be segregated by sex –Girls develop closer friendships How Do Children’s Concepts of Friendship Develop?

28 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 13 The School

29 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 13 Entry into school –School experience makes multiple demands on children –School readiness is determined by Child’s early life experiences Child’s development and learning Reasonable expectations for students –Poor health care and lack of support put students at risk What Are the Effects of School on Children’s Social and Emotional Development?

30 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 13 Effective schools have –Energetic leadership –Empowered teachers and students –Orderly atmosphere –Academic curriculum with frequent assessment –High expectations for students Similar class size What Are the Characteristics of a Good School?

31 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 13 A Closer Look Bullying—An Epidemic of Misbehavior and Fear

32 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 13 On student performance –Teacher’s behavior –Emotional climate of classroom Teacher expectations –Expectations can become self-fulfilling prophesies Sexism in the classroom –Girls are treated unequally by teachers, peers, tests, and curriculum The Influence of Teachers

33 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 13 Social and Emotional Problems

34 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 13 Conduct disorders –Child consistently breaks rules or violates rights of others –Emerge around age 8, more prevalent in boys –Tend to endure Origins of conduct disorder –Genetic component –Inconsistent discipline, antisocial family members, deviant peers Treatment of conduct disorders –Cognitive behavioral techniques involving parent training –Teach children social, coping and problem-solving skills What Are Conduct Disorders

35 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 13 Depressed children –Show poor appetite, insomnia, difficulty concentrating –Loss of self-esteem and interest in people and activities they enjoy –Feel hopeless and show thoughts of suicide Origins of depression –Low levels of social and academic competence –Stressful life events and poor problem solving –Attribute failures to internal, stable and global factors Treatment of depression –Psychotherapy –Antidepressants What Is Depression?

36 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 13 Persistent and excessive separation anxiety –Inappropriate for developmental level –Interferes with activities Children with SAD –Cling to parents and may refuse to attend school What Is Separation Anxiety Disorder?

37 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 13 SAD may be expressed as school phobia School phobia—fear of school or refusal to attend –May occur outside of presence of SAD School refusal –May occur for reasons other than fear or anxiety Treatments –Get the child to attend school –Cognitive-behavioral approaches –Antidepressant medication What Are the Connections Between Separation Anxiety Disorder, School Phobia, and School Refusal?

38 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 13 Developing in a World of Diversity Problems? No Problem. (For Some Children.)


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