2SSUSH6SSUSH6 The student will analyze the nature of territorial and population growth and the impact of this growth in the early decades of the new nation.
3SSUSH6a.Explain the Northwest Ordinance’s importance in the westward migration of Americans, and on slavery, public education, and the addition of new states.
4Achievements under the Articles of Confederation The Articles of Confederation was not all bad. It did provide the nation with an orderly way to organize new territories.
5Two Land OrdinancesThe central gov’t received lands called the Northwest Territory – an area bounded by the Mississippi River, the Ohio River, and the Great Lakes.To provide for the settling and governing of the territory, Congress passed two laws: the Land Ordinance of 1785 and the Northwest Ordinance of 1787.
6Land Ordinance of 1785 Land Ordinance of 1785 Divided lands into 36 sections eachOne section of each township be used to support public education.It sold in 640 acre section at no less than a $1 per acre.
7Northwest Land Ordinance of 1787 The territory would be divided into no fewer than three no more than five territories, each would become a state (These would later become Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, and Wisconsin)
8Once the territory reached 5000 male adults, it could create a territorial legislature, together with a governor and judges appointed by Congress.At 60,000 people, it could adopt a state constitution and apply for statehood.It prohibited slavery in the Northwest Territory, encouraged education, and provided a “bill of rights.”
9Significance (importance) The Land Ordinance created a central policy for the sale of western lands and showed an interest in public education.The Northwest Ordinance created a way for territories to become states. It also treated the territories with respect.
10SSUSH6bb. Describe Jefferson’s diplomacy in obtaining the Louisiana Purchase from France and the territory’s exploration by Lewis and Clark.
12Ways the United States have acquired land in the past. WarfarePurchasing landTreaty
13SSUSH6bSSUSH6 The student will analyze the nature of territorial and population growth and the impact of this growth in the early decades of the new nation.b. Describe Jefferson’s diplomacy in obtaining the Louisiana Purchase from France and the territory’s exploration by Lewis and Clark.
14Louisiana Purchase, 1803Purchased from France in 1803 for $15 million dollars.Why?France had taken control of the Mississippi River.They charged the USA money to trade at the mouth of the Mississippi River. (New Orleans)Thomas Jefferson feared that Napoleon Bonaparte would take away US right of deposit in New OrleansNegotiated treaty with Napoleon Bonaparte to purchase the Louisiana territory.
16ProblemsThomas Jefferson believed in a strict interpretation of the Constitution. Purchasing land was not mentioned in the Constitution, He overcame his doubts and purchased the land.
17Consequences of the Louisiana Purchase Doubled the size of the USAGave the United States the Mississippi River and New Orleans.
18Lewis and Clark ( )Congress agreed to finance an expedition to explore the area.Jefferson choose Meriwether Lewis, his private secretary, to lead the expedition. Lewis choose William Clark as his companion officer.
19Lewis and Clark Expedition It started from Missouri in the spring of 1804.Its goals were to:Search for river routes to the western ocean.Make contact with the Native Americans living in the territoryGather information about the area’s natural resources.
20Sacajawea and YorkTo help a French trapper was hired. His wife, Sacajawea (a Shoshone Native American) was used as an interpreter.York, a slave belonging to Clark, was instrumental in smoothing the transition of the explorers.
21c. Explain major reasons for the War of 1812 and the war’s significance on the development of a national identity.
22War of 1812War of 1812Main causesImpressment British sailors forcing American sailors to work for themFreedom of the seasUS citizens felt threaten by the British presence in Canada.June 18, 1812 – Congress declared war on Great Britain
23War Hawks vs. DovesWar Hawks like Senator John C. Calhoun of SC and Senator Henry Clay of Kentucky wanted war in a hope to gain more land out west.War Hawks – term used to describe people who desire war.Doves like many in the North or New England states often did not want war because they were concerned it would hurt their business dealings with Great Britain.Doves - term used to describe people who want peace.
24Events of the WarThe British invaded Washington, DC and burned the White House.Battle of Fort McHenry - a victory for the United States.Frances Scott Key wrote the Star Spangled Banner (later to become the national anthem)
25Events of the War of 1812 Treaty of Ghent (December 1914) Ended the war in a stalemate. (No one loses, no one wins.)Battle of New Orleans was a victory but was fought several weeks after the Treaty of Ghent was signed.The Battle of New Orleans made Andrew Jackson a national hero
26War’s significance on the development of a national identity. Star-Spangled Banner Francis Scott KeyNationalismBelief that a person should put the country’s interest over an individualsAndrew Jackson becomes a national hero.
27National Identity The war produced a strong sense of national identity Before the war manufacturing had lagged behind the Europeans. Because the war nearly stopped trade between Europe and the USA, the USA began to manufacture its own goods.Northern manufacturers begin to prosper (do well) and Southern farmers made huge amounts of money off King Cotton. (The cotton gin had been created in 1794)
29Era of Good Feelings (1817-1824) James Monroe (the last of the Founding Father presidents) was elected in 1817Many felt new nationalistic feelings.
30Henry Clay and the American System Sen. Henry Clay called for several changes to help the country grow.Federal investment in infrastructure (roads,etc.)A tariff to protect trade
31ProblemsPolitical leaders argued over who would pay for the improvements. The Federal gov’t or the state gov’t.
32d. Describe the construction of the Erie Canal, the rise of New York City, and the development of the nation’s infrastructure.
33The Erie CanalIn the early 1800s, New York decided to build the Erie canal (a canal is a man made waterway).The water way increase trade between those in the Ohio River Valley and the Atlantic Ocean.
34e. Describe the reasons for and importance of the Monroe Doctrine.
35The Monroe DoctrineJames Monroe faced a dilemma. European nations begin to think about farther colonization of Latin America (South America and the Caribbean's.)The previous wars over seas had caused them to lose interests in these areas.
36James Monroe issued the Monroe doctrine saying the United States would not tolerate European intervention in the affairs of any independent nations in the Americas.Any future attempts to colonize would be considered an act of aggression.The USA also promised that it would not become involved in the internal affairs of other America nations, nor in those of European nations.
37GPS 7 Students will explain the process of economic growth, its regional and national impact in the first half of the 19th century, ant the different responses to it.
38SSUSH7aa. Explain the impact of the Industrial Revolution as seen in Eli Whitney’s invention of the cotton gin and his development of interchangeable parts for muskets.
39Impact of the Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution (a time when advances in technology led to massive economic changes) started in Great Britain around 1750.IT started in the textile industry.It relied on mechanization (use of machines) instead of a cottage industry (each part was made by hand.)
40Eli WhitneyEli Whitney invented the cotton gin in This invention separated the seeds from cotton making it profitable.EffectThe South became a “cotton kingdom” where “King Cotton” ruled.Its led to a boom (increase) in cotton plantations.It made the South dependent on slave labor.
41Interchangeable parts Eli Whitney also created the interchangeable parts.He was trying to manufacture muskets in large numbers. Each part was so precisely made it could fit another rifle. This ideal spread to other industries.A key aspect of the new technologies was the use of interchangeable parts which could be replaced without disposing of an entire machine.
42b. Describe the westward growth of the United States; include the emerging concept of Manifest Destiny.
43Describe westward growth of the United States By the middle of the 1800s, most Americans believed it was the nation’s destiny to expand to the Pacific Ocean.This ideal was called Manifest Destiny.
44Manifest Destiny was the name given to the idea that the United States would naturally occupy the territory between the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans.The word manifest means ―obvious,‖ and the word destiny means ―fate.‖ According to Manifest Destiny, the obvious fate of the United States was to expand ―from sea to shining sea.‖
45Manifest DestinyManifest Destiny was the belief that the nation had a sacred duty to conquer the West.
46Westward Growth of the United States Westward Growth of the United States was motivated by three main reasons:1. The desire of most Americans to own their own land.2. The discovery of gold and other valuable resources.3. The belief that the United States was destined to stretch across North America
48c. Describe reform movements, specifically temperance, abolitionism, and public school.
49Reform MovementsA number of social reform movements begin during the 1800s.They aimed to transform the society in beneficial ways.MovementsTemperance MovementAbolitionist MovementEducation reform movementWomen’s movement
50Temperance MovementIn the early 1800s (19th century), the temperance movement begin to gain popularity.The Temperance movement wanted to moderate the use of alcohol and late advocated total abstinence.Many states passed laws prohibiting its sale.It owed its success to women and church leaders in the US.
51AbolitionismIn the 1830s, abolitionism gained momentum (strength, power, influence.)Abolitionism was the movement to abolish (end) slavery.In the South, abolitionism was frowned upon but in the North it was gaining support.
52Black abolitionist were usually former slaves. Members of the abolitionist movement was mostly white, educated people from New England (many were Quakers.)Ex. - Harriet Beecher Stowe writer of Uncle Tom’s Cabin and her brother Henry Beecher.Black abolitionist were usually former slaves.It eventually gained enough respectability and support that it started a new political party (the Republican Party) and changed the course of a nation (the Civil War.)
53Angelina and Sarah Grimke Southern women who were both abolitionists.
54Frederick DouglassFrederick Douglass - ex-slave who published the abolitionist paper, The North Star.
55William Lloyd Garrison An abolitionist who believed in immediate abolishment of slavery.Published The Liberator, a abolitionist newspaper.
56Argument about ending slavery Two arguments for ending slaveryImmediately end slaveryGradually end slavery
57Horace Mann and education reform Horace Mann was from Massachusetts and advocated education reform.He wanted men and women to have assess to public education.He believed that education was essential to democracy’s success.
58He help to create the state Board of Education in Massachusetts He help to create the state Board of Education in Massachusetts. The first of its kind in the USA.His effort caused other states to be inspired by his efforts.
59d. Explain women’s efforts to gain suffrage; include Elizabeth Cady Stanton and the Seneca Falls Convention.
60Explain women’s efforts to gain suffrage. Women participated in the abolitionist and temperance movement, but faced discrimination from men. This led to the Women’s Rights Movement. Women such as Elizabeth Cady Stanton help to organize the first women’s right convention known as Seneca Falls Conference in 1848.
61Elizabeth Cady Stanton used this as an opportunity to call for suffrage for women. Suffrage means the right to vote.The Seneca Falls Convention drew attention to the plight of women.
62e. Explain Jacksonian Democracy, expanding suffrage, the rise of popular political culture, and the development of American nationalism
63Jacksonian DemocracyA great supporter of Manifest Destiny was Andrew Jackson.Jackson’s AchievementsWinner of the Battle of New OrleansHe had forced the Spanish to make concessions over Florida. An action which led to Florida becoming a US territory.
64Andrew Jackson He was known as the “Common Man” Unlike previous political leaders, he was born poor and had achieved despite being uneducated and orphaned at age 14.He was the first to be elected from west of the Appalachian Mountains.
65“Corrupt Bargaining”He ran for president in the election of 1824 but lost when the election became a tie between John Quincy Adams and himself.The election was called the election of “Corrupt Bargaining” because he won the popular vote but not the electoral collage. The House of Representatives had to break the tie and its believed Henry Clay, one of his opponents, may have used his influence to have John Quincy Adams elected.
66Election of 1828He won the election of 1828 to become the nation’s first “Common Man’s” president.
67Popular CulturePopular political culture increased during Jackson presidential campaigns.Jackson‘s side accused his opponent of flattering European royalty and misusing public funds. The opponent accused Jackson of unfaithfulness in his marriage, of massacring Native Americans, of illegally executing convicted soldiers, and of dueling.These accusations were publicized in songs, pamphlets, posters, and lapel buttons. A voter could find all these at the first-ever campaign rallies and barbecues.
68Jacksonian Democracy Universal male Suffrage Jackson believed strongly in western expansion and the rights of white frontier settlers.He resented “eastern elites” and political leaders who seem to favor the wealthy.Therefore, he backed universal suffrageUniversal suffrage – all white men should be free to vote, not just those that owned property.Most states would drop the property requirement during his time in office.
69He also wanted to simplify the political process for the average person to understand.
70Spoil SystemJackson instituted the spoils system – rewarding his political supports with government positions.It set a precedents for rewarding faithful supporters with government jobs.He thought it would promote involvement in government but ultimate created an atmosphere of corruption.
71Laissez-faire economics Jackson and his followers believed in laissez-faire economics (gov’t should not regulate business or pass policy to help businessmen).He did not necessarily set out to punish the wealthy businessmen but wanted small business people to have an opportunity to succeed like the wealthy.
72Jackson’s strict interpretation of the Constitution Jackson had a strict interpretation of the US Constitution. However, he pushed the boundaries of the president’s office. He still believed that the gov’t powers should be limited to those in the Constitution.
73American NationalismAmerican nationalism spread with the belief in Manifest Destiny.They believed their nation was different than, and superior to, other nations because most Americans of that time shared the Protestant religion and English language, ancestry, and culture.
74They believed it was their duty to expand the hold of the their religion, language, ancestry, and culture all the way to the Pacific Ocean to remake all of North America as the Founding Fathers had remade the Atlantic coast. Altogether, these beliefs comprise American nationalism.
75Practice questions1. Who invented the cotton gin and interchangeable parts?Eli WhitneySamuel SlaterRobert FultonCyrus McCormick
76Practice Question Elizabeth Cady Stanton is most identified with Jacksonian Democracyeducation reformAbolitionwomen’s suffrage
77Practice QuestionsWhat was significant about he Seneca Falls Convention?