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Prehistoric Period and First Contacts

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1 Prehistoric Period and First Contacts

2 GPS SS8H1 The student will evaluate the development of Native American Cultures and the impact of European exploration and settlement on the Native American cultures in Georgia.

3 Task #1 With a sheet of paper, make three columns under three Categories. Only fill in the first two columns from the left. What do you know about how Native Americans lived before Europeans arrived? (For example foods, shelter, tools, families) What would you like to know about how the Native Americans lived? What did you learn about how the Native Americans lived before the Europeans arrived in the New World?

4 Did Native Americans culture have a written language?
If not, how do we know what we do about them?

5 SS8H1a Describe the evolution of Native American cultures (Paleo, Archaic, Woodland, and Mississippian) prior to European contact Tasks #2 During the video clip, think of these questions: *What is an archeologist? *Why would artifacts be considered “garbage?” *Who were the “people” who “greedily” seized “the lands of the red men” in Georgia?

6 Tasks #3: When watching the video on Primitive Technology, ask yourself these questions:
*What materials did the Native Americans use to make daily living items? *What did the Native Americans make “Dance Masks” out of? *How did Native Americans hand down stories to the next generation? *Native Americans used river cane poles to make what items? *What type of stone was utilized to make tools?

7 Task #4 Place the dates and events on the appropriate location of the blank time line
CENTRAL GEORGIA TIMLINE 12,000 B.C. Paleo Indian Period – Ice Age Nomadic big game hunters (Clovis Culture) 9,000 B.C. Transitional Period – Adjustments to the changing environment as the Ice Age ends 8,000 B.C. Archaic Period – use of atlatl (spear thrower), ground stone tools and ornaments 2,500 B.C. First pottery, revolutionized cooking and storage methods 1,000 B.C. Woodland Period – Finer pottery decorated; bow and arrow, gardening (sunflower, gourds, etc.); semi-permanent villages with burial mounds 900 A.D. Early Mississippian Period – intensive agriculture (corn, beans and squash planted) Large temple and burial mounds

8 1350 A.D. Late Mississippian Period – The Lamar Culture Towns,
1540 A.D Spaniard Hernando De Soto, traveled through the interior of Georgia.

9 SS8H1a Describe the evolution of Native American cultures (Paleo, Archaic, Woodland, and Mississippian) prior to European contact.

10 Evolution of Native American society
Essential Question: What caused the early prehistoric societies to migrate, and once they stopped their nomadic existence, how did their society change?

11 Paleo Indian Culture




15 Paleo Indian Culture 12,000 to 8000 B.C. (BCE)
Years 12,000 to 8000 B.C. (BCE) Social Groupings Nomadic, small groups (i.e. 25) Buried dead with artifacts Shelter/ Homes Caves, Animal Hides Weapons/ Tools Spears (Clovis points), Atlatl Food Bison, Mammoth, Giants Sloths

16 Archaic Indian Culture



19 Archaic Indian Culture
Years 8000 to 1000 B.C. (BCE) (Late Archaic around 2500 B.C—pottery) Social Groupings Camps, Clans (100 to 200) Shelter/ Homes Crude shelters, stayed in one place longer Weapons/ Tools Atlatl and spear Drills, bones, needles, hooks Food Deer, rabbits, seafood, fish Wild berries, grains and fruit

20 Woodland Indian Culture






26 Woodland Era Indian Culture
Years 1000 B.C. to 800 A.D. Social Groupings Tribes, villages with defense perimeters Shelters/ Homes Permanent domed huts with grass roofs, burial mounds Weapons/ Tools Bow and Arrow, axes, flint Pottery Foods Gardening of small plants, such as sunflowers, pumpkins, squash, etc. Small game

27 Mississippian Indian Culture





32 Mississippian Indian Culture
Years 900 A.D. to 1600 A.D. Social Groupings Tribal councils in earth lodges, High Priest and/or chief lives on highest mound; Social classes and division of labor Shelters/ Homes Large Communities (2,000) with plaza in center and Temple (ceremonial) Mounds Homes same as Woodland period Weapons/ Tools Bow and Arrow; stone axes and farming tools; cooper headdresses Food Intensive farming (maize, beans, squash, and pumpkins), small game


34 Task #5 Make three columns and identify some of the elements of Creek and Cherokee culture (use pages 84 to 91 in Textbook as resource) Creeks Cherokees Meaning of name Location Tribal government Villages Homes/Family Livelihood

35 Sheet on Cumulative Topics of Economic in Georgia
Sheet on Cumulative Topics of Economic in Georgia History (First Semester 2008) SS8E1 The Student will give examples of the kinds of goods and services produced in Georgia in different historical periods. Goods: Any item that can be _____________, _________, or _____________. Service: Any action that one does for another in exchange for some form of _____________ (money, service or product). Resource: Anything used to ____________ (land, labor, or natural resource) a good or service. Economics: The study of how we make decisions to allocate _________ resources in order to meet our ______________ wants. Medium of Exchange: Any item that someone may want or need. The more people want or need the item, the higher its _________________. # BARTER ECONOMY:

36 #1 Barter Economy Basic ideas behind “bartering” in 15 words or less!!

37 If we had NO money and currency, we would have to rely on the “bartering system.”
For what items (or services) and how much would you trade for a: 1. pass to the bathroom 2. a pencil 3. a student planner 4. a gym bag or backpack 5. week worth of lunches

38 SS8H1b Evaluate the impact of European contact on Native American cultures including the Spanish missions along the Barrier Islands, and the exploration of De Soto SS8H1c Explain reasons for European exploration and settlement in North America, with emphasis on the interests of the French, Spanish, and English in the southeastern area.

39 Write these questions down and find answers in the power point slides
1. Who were the “middlemen,” and why did western Europeans try to avoid them? 2. What were the reasons why Cortez was able to defeat the Aztec Empire? Motive? 3. Which institution assisted Pizarro in conquering the Inca Empire? Who was more ruthless?



42 Eurasian Trade Routes Asian traders Muslim traders Italian merchants
What happens to the price of goods every time they change hands? Therefore, who became REALLY wealthy from the Eurasian trade routes? The price goes up! Italian merchants!

43 Spanish Missions along the barrier islands
Which individuals or groups in Georgia History were influence by the conquistadors? Hernando De Soto (1540s) Spanish Missions along the barrier islands


45 Task #6 Watch video clip on De Soto and think about these questions:
What was De Soto searching for when he explored Georgia? Although outnumbered, what advantages did De Soto and his men have over the Native Americans in GA? Why was his expedition a failure? What legacy (one good and one bad) did De Soto leave on the history of Georgia?

46 Task #7 Write out and answer the following question on a separate sheet of paper
What do you think the Native Americans thought when they saw De Soto’s men arrive riding horses and dressed in metal armor and helmets? In your opinion, what type of man was De Soto?

47 The Spanish Founded St. Augustine in 1565 First Spanish mission in 1566 on St. Catherine’s Island Missions covered area along the barrier islands and coastal plain called Guale (named after one of the local tribes) Purposes a. Convert natives to Christianity b. Assimilate tribesmen c. Physical presence against French and English


49 V. Decline of Spanish missions
Diseases and overworked men “Slave-raids” by British and allies (Yamasee who later work with Georgia colony) Spanish Empire losing world power after Spanish Armada in 1588. Last mission remained until 1684

50 Founded Fort Caroline at mouth of St. John’s River (near Jacksonville)
The French Founded Fort Caroline at mouth of St. John’s River (near Jacksonville) Wanted base to battle Spanish for control of southeast and steal gold Spanish captured fort and drove out French French remain in Mississippi River and New Orleans

51 and settling the southeastern area a. Overcrowding in England
The English Reasons for exploring and settling the southeastern area a. Overcrowding in England b. Compete with Spanish and French c. Religious freedom d. Economic opportunities

52 Jamestown started in 1607 Carolina colony founded in 1670 (built Charleston in 1670) Ocmulgee trading post (located by the mounds) founded in 1690. a Col. James Moore and Creek warriors devastated the Spanish mission system b Yamassee War, 90% of the English traders were killed. c. British and Creeks defeat and push Yamassees back to Florida V to 1728 Fort King George was built at mouth of Altamaha River (buffer against Spanish)

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