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CHAPTER 13 Political Transformations: Empires and Encounters 1450–1750

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1 CHAPTER 13 Political Transformations: Empires and Encounters 1450–1750
Robert W. Strayer Ways of the World: A Brief Global History Second Edition and Ways of the World: A Brief Global History with Sources Second Edition CHAPTER 13 Political Transformations: Empires and Encounters 1450–1750 Copyright © 2013 by Bedford/St. Martin’s

2 Political Transformations / Empires and Encounters 1450-1750
Chapter#13 Early Modern Era Political Transformations / Empires and Encounters

3 European Advantage Countries on the Atlantic rim – Portugal, Spain, Britain and France were closer to America than any Asian competitor Winds in the Atlantic were consistent European innovations in mapmaking, navigation, sailing techniques, and ship design gave them an advantage in entering the Atlantic Ocean World

4 Motivated by their desire to obtain goods from Asia, gain new territories
More land was needed to support the population based on wheat and livestock Western Europe needed grain, sugar, meat, and fish Rulers were also driven by their rivalry with each other Also the desire to spread Christianity

5 European states were able to mobilize human and material resources
Sailing techniques built on Chinese and Muslim technology allowed sailing across the Atlantic Able to transport people and supplies across great distances Ironworking, gunpowder weapons, and horses were far superior to what was in the Americas Sailed for Gold, Glory and God

6 Aztecs Division in the Americas provided allies for European Natives who resented the Aztec rule joined with the Spanish against the Aztec Spanish were looked a liberators Spanish leader – Hernan Cortez Aztec leader - Moctezuma

7 Incan’s were divided as two brothers struggled for control
Atahualpa and Huascar Atahualpa will become emporer Spanish leader – Francisco Pizzaro

8 Disease was the greatest advantage the Europeans had
With no immunities to European diseases the nave population was decimated Disease will kill so many natives that shortly after arriving the new settlers will outnumber the natives

9 The Great Dying Global impact – collapse of Native American societies 60-80 million population prior to the Spanish arrival Greatest concentration in Mesoamerica and Andean zone – Aztec and Incan empires Disease –small pox, measles, typhus, influenza, malaria, and yellow fever 90% of population died is=n some cases

10 Population of Caribbean almost vanished in 50 years
Central Mexico population of 20 million decline to 1 million by 1650 North America experience the same results William Bradford governor of Massachusetts saw the death of so many natives (90%) as the ”good hand of God”

11 Columbian exchange The death of so many natives in America created a labor shortage Made room for immigrants and enslaved Africans Over several centuries of Colonial Era European and African people created new societies New arrivals brought disease, plants and animals

12 Wheat, rice, sugarcane, grapes, and many garden vegetables and fruits as well as weeds
Animals – horses, pigs, cattle, goats, sheep - all new to America Allowed for ranching economies both north and south Americas Horses transformed many North American tribes – abandoned farms and hunted from horseback

13 America’s food crops – corn, potatoes, and peppers went to Eastern hemisphere
New foods led to population growth in Europe Europe’s population 60 million in 1400 / 390 million 1900 Potatoes also went to Ireland – and population grew rapidly – years later many dies as a fungus destroyed the crops Caused millions of Irish to leave their homeland

14 In China corn, peanuts and sweet potatoes led to a population explosion
Early 20th century – crops from America 20% of Chinese diet American stimulants Tobacco and chocolate soon used world wide Tea from China and coffee Islamic world spread globally Silver mines of Peru and Mexico fueled transatlantic commerce

15 Allowed Europeans to buy silks and porcelains they prized
The slave trade brought needed labor from Africa Sugar and cotton trade caused millions of African to be enslaved and sent to Americas This HUGE transfer of people, good, disease and ideas is called the Columbian Exchange It is a collision of culture between the eastern and western hemispheres

16 Comparing Colonial Societies in America
Spanish, Portuguese, British, and French all created new empires in the new world Created new societies – decimation of natives mixed with new immigrants and slaves Mercantilism – The colonial empires existed for the purpose of bettering the mother country Fueled war an Colonial rivalry

17 Cortez made an alliance with native Tlaxcala against the Aztecs
Received 100s of female slaves Daughters from elite families – distributed to his soldiers Aztec ruler – deliver women with light skin, corn, chickens, eggs, and tortillas


19 Some Spanish married the elite women
Moctezuma’s daughter – mistress to Cortez later married several other Spanish men Below elite status – women experienced sexual violence and abuse- also men City destroyed and Mexico City rebuilt in same spot


21 Spanish conquest of Incans and Aztecs gave Spain
Access to great wealth Within a century and before any English attempt at settlement, established about a dozen major cities, universities, hundreds of cathedrals, and missions Network of international commerce Large plantations established and silver and gold mines

22 Native people provided most of the labor
Encomienda - legal system that gave the right to the Spanish to force labor Also required them to give protection to natives and instruction in Christianity This turns into enslavement Repartimiento – same system but more control by the Spanish officials


24 17th century – hacienda system
Large plantation owners employed natives – low wages, high taxes, creating large debts to landowners Peons – poor working class had very little control over their lives Top of the society -land owning aristocrat They started to feel more and more as colonials and deserving of self-government New hierarchy established

25 Peninsulares – Spanish born living in America
Creoles – Spanish born in America Mestizo – European and native Mulatto – European and African


27 Women were not allowed to hold office
Considered weak and in need of protection Bearers of civilization – link to male wealth, honor, status of future generations Strict control of their sexuality – obsession with “purity of blood” Scarcity of women – 7-1 ratio early in early colonial Peru

28 Native women seeking security married Europeans
Mestizo eventually becomes the majority population of Spanish Americas Mestizo women worked in domestic servants, or in husband’s shops, wove cloth, made candles and cigars Natives were subject to abuse and exploitation – labor force in mines and on estates In Native law women cold own property but in Spanish law they could not

29 Colony of Sugar Brazil and British, French, and Dutch islands of the Caribbean – aka sugar islands Europeans gained the technology from the Muslims and introduced this in America Huge demand in Europe Areas where sugar was grown was mostly for export and they important needed foods Massive use of slave labor, harsh conditions

30 Native American population had been wiped out or had run away in Brazil
Europeans turned to the African slave trade 80% of Africans ended up in Brazil and the Caribbean Slaves worked on sugar plantations – very harsh conditions Conditions, disease = 5-10% death rate a year

31 ½ the population women Women worked under the same conditions and received the same amount of food Some women worked for white owners doing domestic chores, or hired out to homes, shops, laundries, inns and brothels Eventually the population was mostly African decent

32 Haiti 1790 / 93% Brazil – cross racial mixing Use of concubines and casual relationships among African, Indian and Portuguese Produced a substantial mixed race population Mulattoes – African & European was very prominent

33 British North America Slavery extended here / mostly to plantations in the south Cotton, tobacco, rice and indigo Less racial mixing here Racial divide –Black =African, Red= Indian, White= Europeans

34 Slavery was less harsh in North America
Slaves in the United States reproduced and by Civil War, almost all slaves had been born here Not the case in Latin America where new slaves were imported into the 19th century Brazil – many slaves were set free here (more so than North America)

35 Blacks and mulattoes had more economic opportunities in Brazil
Some found rolls in government North America – any amount of African made you “black” Brazil a person of African and non-African considered non black

36 Settler Colonies in North America
British were the last to establish colonies in the new world Many considered the lands they took in North America as “left overs” lacking wealth Not a prominent part of the world stage until the 18th century British settlers came from a changing

37 England – had already had Protestant / Catholic conflict
Rich merchant class, distinct from nobility, established a parliament, which checked the power of the king Brought much of their English culture to America

38 Puritans and Quakers came to America to break away from English culture
Men in Puritan New England became independent heads of the home – no nobility Women in Puritan society - role wife and mother Husband head of the house and women below him Women prosecuted for fornication much more often than men Few women attended school but were majority in church- could not become ministers

39 British settlers outnumbered Spanish settlers in the new world / 5/1 by 1750
By the time of the American Revolution, 90% of colonies population was Europeans Disease and military attacks had decimated the native populations Christianity not spread here as much / not deemed as important by British Protestants Protestants did insist on all being able to read the bible

40 Schools were mandated in New England and here there was a very literate population
Over 75% / women lower Latin America Catholics / 95% illiterate by independence British settlers developed self-government

41 Joint stock companies invested in new colonies
Virginia aka London Company invested in Jamestown For much of the 17th century the English government ignored or neglected the colonies / salutary neglect They elected colonial assemblies to defend their rights – representative government


43 The Steppes and Siberia: The Making of the Russian Empire
Same time Western Europe was building an empire Russia was taking shape and would become the world’s largest state Moscow – center of Russia

44 Expanding Russia – Polish, Germans, Ukrainians, Belorussians, and Baltic people
Eastern Europe to Pacific Security a problem Pastoral societies often rained and enslaved population

45 Siberia 220,000 people by 17th century 100 languages Hunting / gathering / small groups “Soft Gold” fur bearing animals – pelts were in world demand

46 Russian Empire Russian military conquered the surrounding territories / modern weapons Demanded oath of allegiance Tribute or yasak paid in cash or in kind Disease followed conquest / local had no immunities to invaders disease

47 People forced to convert to Christianity
Destruction on Mosques and tax incentives to those who converted Forced resettlement of Muslims Catherine the Great established religious toleration for Muslims (18 century) but had state agency watch and control them

48 Russians migrated to Siberia
700,000 by 1720 / Local people reduced to 30% and 14% by 19th century Loss of hunting grounds and pasture lands to Russian agriculture undermined older societies People became dependent on grain, sugar, tea, tobacco, and alcohol Fees required crossing agriculture lands Steppes and Siberia became part of Russian state


50 Russia and Empire Wealth / rich agriculture lands, furs and mineral deposits helped Russia become a great power Movement west was mostly by military conquest Ottomans, Poland, Sweden, Lithuania, Prussia, and Austria Western Europe was aware of a growing and more powerful Russia

51 Contact with Western Europe also fostered westernization
Peter the Great Modernization, administration changes, manufacturing, nobles made to dress European St. Petersburg became the new capital Catherine the Great vied herself as part of the Enlightenment


53 Conflict with Asia Some of Asia controlled by Russia Next to China, India, Persia and Ottoman Empire Conflict with Islam

54 Asian Empires China went deep into central Asia Turko-Mongol invaders from Central Asia created the Mughal Empire / bringing Hindu South Asia within a single political group Ottoman Empire / Muslim rule to Largely Christian society in southeastern Europe Turkish Rule to Arab population in North Africa and Middle East

55 Chinese empire 15th century China stopped ocean exploration 17th and 18th century China built a new Empire Qing or Manchu Dynasty

56 Nomadic (foreign) from north of Great Wall
Wanted to keep ethnic distinction No intermarriage Mastered Chinese language Confucianism / to govern empire Trade, tribute system and warfare continued with nomadic peoples

57 1680-1760 Qing military brought huge regions under its control
This was undertaken for security concerns Eastern movement took them into conflict with Mongols Treaty with Russia / Treaty of Nerchinsk 1689 – established borders Chinese did not look at themselves as imperial power but were unifying the people

58 China created this empire by using more advanced military / modern weapons
Conquered people forced to dress Chinese / officials wear peacock feathers Did not force assimilation Buddhist monks not required to pay taxes of labor Mongolian, Tibetan and Muslim cultures were respected

59 Muslim and Hindus in the Mughal Empire
Turic people who claimed to be descendants of Chinggis Khan and Timur Brutal conquest / provided India with a rare political unity Division in Mughal Empire was religion Ruling dynasty and Muslim people 20% Most of the rest were Hindu / in some form


61 Akbar 1556-1605 / most famous emperor
Accommodated the Hindu majority He married several princesses (Hindu Tribes) did not make them convert to Islam Hindus in political and military Supported building of Hindu temples Tried to loosen restriction on women

62 Encouraged remarriage of widows
Discouraged child marriage Discouraged Sati (widow followed her husband in death by throwing herself in fire) Set market days for women Nur Jahan 20th wife was considered the power behind the thrown / opium & alcohol addicted husband

63 Akbar had ulama (Islamic religious scholars) retrained
Removed special tax on non Muslim Constructed a special house of worship / many religions participated Hindu epic Ramayana translated into Persian Created a Indian-Persian –Turkic culture Policies caused a sharp reaction by some Muslims


65 Women were not following Islamic strict law
Some wanted to impose Sharia Law Emperor Aurangzeb / tried to impose Islamic dominance Music and dance banned Dancing girls ordered to get married or leave Gambling, drinking, prostitution, and narcotics were suppressed

66 Hindu temples destroyed
Jizay – “Censors of Public Morals” enforced Islamic law This caused a split and conflict between Islamic and Hindu people After his death this area was open to British take over

67 Muslims and Christians in the Ottoman Empire
Created by Turkic Warriors Starting in 1300s these Ottoman Turks took over much of the Middle East and North Africa Creating an Islamic world Taking the “Sword of Islam” and serving as defender of the faith

68 Strict Islamic Law / creating a strong patriarchal society / women veiled, secluded
Allowed women property rights / some gained great wealth Ottoman courts used to protect rights marriage, divorce, property and inheritance Holy cities of Islam – Mecca, Medina and Jerusalem to under Ottoman control

69 Imposing Sunni version of Islam
Persian Empire holding to Shia for of Islam - divide in Islamic world Byzantium fell in 1453 and Constantinople became Istanbul the capital of the Ottoman Empire Balkans – mostly Christian Many Christians welcomed Ottoman conquest

70 Less taxation and churches allowed to practice
Many Jewish and Christian would use Muslim courts to protect their rights as they were granted more rights here Devshirme – required Christian communities to turn over a quota of young boys Boys forced into Turkish homes and into Islam


72 The End

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