Presentation on theme: "Political Transformations: Empires and Encounters"— Presentation transcript:
1Political Transformations: Empires and Encounters 1450-1750 Chapter 13
2Colonial Societies in the Americas Spanish, Portuguese, British, FrenchWholly new societiesMercantilism: Colonies provided markets for goods and bullion.Comparisons?Catholic Spain and Protestant EnglandType of economyUrbanized Mesoamerican and Andean natives versus rural villages of North AmericaRole of women
3Spanish Colonies Long before British and French Economic foundation: commercial agriculture, silver and gold miningEncomienda: The Spanish crown granted to particular Spanish settlers a number of local native people from whom they could require labor, gold, or agricultural produce and to whom they owed “protection” and instruction in the Christian faith.Repartimiento/Mita: Same but with more control from the Spain, seen more as a tax/tribute, a certain % of natives were required to work for the estate owners for a certain amount of daysHacienda: The owners of the large estates directly employed native workers.
4Social Structure of Colonial Latin America Chapter 13
5Colonial Latin American Caste System When Spanish and Portuguese colonies were established in central and south America a caste system formed. (castas)One’s social class was directly tied to how “pure” his blood was and his place of birth.The kings wanted to keep the colonies under their control and only have “loyal” people in office.
7Peninsulares “pure blood” ??? From the Iberian Peninsula Highest social class and the only class which could hold high office (church, military, administrative)Spain wanted to keep loyalty of colonial leaders.
8Creoles Born in Americas Land-owning Elite Could not hold highest positionsIn 1800s will rebel against peninsulares in wars of independence
9Mestizos Of Spanish and Amerindian descent Spanish and Portuguese men married native women and had families.
10Zambos = Amerindian and African descent Mulattoes = Spanish and African descentZambos = Amerindian and African descent
11AfricansMany Africans were brought over from Africa to the colonies as slaves.Some of these Africans would escape from a plantation and find their way to native villages.Natives were usually sympathetic to the African people.
12Factions by FractionsThere were various levels in society, in between the main groups, based on blood quantum.Example: Castizos = ¾ European, no more than ¼ AmerindianDerogatory Slurs
13ComparisonsSpanish and Portuguese colonies differed in that Africans were not a huge factor in Spanish colonial society but were in Portuguese society.North American colonization was different in that women were colonists. There was not a shortage of women like in Meso and South America. Less racial mixing.In North America three main groups: white, red and black; in Spanish and Portuguese colonies many mixed-race groups
14Settler Colonies in North America Many British settlers wanted to escape Old World society and start over, not recreate what they had.They could escape class restrictions of England.More British settlers came to New World than Spanish or Portuguese.Protestants not as interested in spreading Christianity as Catholics, but provided more literacy.More local self-government, joint-stock companies and royal charters. British crown relatively unconcerned with colonies.
15Russian Empire From Moscow to world’s largest state (1500-1800) Brought the steppes and Siberia under its controlSubmission to Tsar, yasak (tribute), and ChristianitySettlers put pressure on pastoralists/nomadsRussified
17Russian EmpireBecame multi-ethnic through conquest (Slavs, pastoralists, Siberians)Wealth in agriculture, furs, mineral depositsPeter the Great: , westernization and modernizationCatherine the Great: , Enlightened despot
18Chinese EmpireStopped possible maritime expansion but grew empire to the north and westQing dynasty or Manchu ( ), they were from Manchuria and had conquered the ChineseBrought Mongolia, Xinjiang, and Tibet under Chinese control or “unified”Treaty of Nerchinsk (1689) with Russia to set boundaryCourt of Colonial Affairs, local rulersChange in that area: not cosmopolitan, nomadic pastoralists removed from world stage
19Mughal Empire in India Rare period of political unity, 1526-1707 Divided between Muslims and HindusAkbar: had tolerance toward Hindu majority, married Hindu princess, put Hindus in political-military elite, built temples, lessened restrictions on women, removed jizya/tax, House of Worship, Indian-Persian-Turkic cultureOpposition from Shayk Ahmad Sirhindi: it is the women’s faultAurangzeb: reversal of Akbar’s policyOpposition movements weakened India
20Ottoman Empire The “Sword of Islam”: conquered and defending Islam Women had many rights, more than EuropeansBalkans: Christian majority, mostly tolerance, devshirmeEuropeans worried about a Muslim takeover, Suleiman