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Political Transformations: Empires and Encounters

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Presentation on theme: "Political Transformations: Empires and Encounters"— Presentation transcript:

1 Political Transformations: Empires and Encounters 1450-1750
Chapter 13

2 Colonial Societies in the Americas
Spanish, Portuguese, British, French Wholly new societies Mercantilism: Colonies provided markets for goods and bullion. Comparisons? Catholic Spain and Protestant England Type of economy Urbanized Mesoamerican and Andean natives versus rural villages of North America Role of women

3 Spanish Colonies Long before British and French
Economic foundation: commercial agriculture, silver and gold mining Encomienda: The Spanish crown granted to particular Spanish settlers a number of local native people from whom they could require labor, gold, or agricultural produce and to whom they owed “protection” and instruction in the Christian faith. Repartimiento/Mita: Same but with more control from the Spain, seen more as a tax/tribute, a certain % of natives were required to work for the estate owners for a certain amount of days Hacienda: The owners of the large estates directly employed native workers.

4 Social Structure of Colonial Latin America
Chapter 13

5 Colonial Latin American Caste System
When Spanish and Portuguese colonies were established in central and south America a caste system formed. (castas) One’s social class was directly tied to how “pure” his blood was and his place of birth. The kings wanted to keep the colonies under their control and only have “loyal” people in office.

6 Peninsulares Creoles Mestizos Mulattoes Amerindians Zambos Africans

7 Peninsulares “pure blood” ??? From the Iberian Peninsula
Highest social class and the only class which could hold high office (church, military, administrative) Spain wanted to keep loyalty of colonial leaders.

8 Creoles Born in Americas Land-owning Elite
Could not hold highest positions In 1800s will rebel against peninsulares in wars of independence

9 Mestizos Of Spanish and Amerindian descent
Spanish and Portuguese men married native women and had families.

10 Zambos = Amerindian and African descent
Mulattoes = Spanish and African descent Zambos = Amerindian and African descent

11 Africans Many Africans were brought over from Africa to the colonies as slaves. Some of these Africans would escape from a plantation and find their way to native villages. Natives were usually sympathetic to the African people.

12 Factions by Fractions There were various levels in society, in between the main groups, based on blood quantum. Example: Castizos = ¾ European, no more than ¼ Amerindian Derogatory Slurs

13 Comparisons Spanish and Portuguese colonies differed in that Africans were not a huge factor in Spanish colonial society but were in Portuguese society. North American colonization was different in that women were colonists. There was not a shortage of women like in Meso and South America. Less racial mixing. In North America three main groups: white, red and black; in Spanish and Portuguese colonies many mixed-race groups

14 Settler Colonies in North America
Many British settlers wanted to escape Old World society and start over, not recreate what they had. They could escape class restrictions of England. More British settlers came to New World than Spanish or Portuguese. Protestants not as interested in spreading Christianity as Catholics, but provided more literacy. More local self-government, joint-stock companies and royal charters. British crown relatively unconcerned with colonies.

15 Russian Empire From Moscow to world’s largest state (1500-1800)
Brought the steppes and Siberia under its control Submission to Tsar, yasak (tribute), and Christianity Settlers put pressure on pastoralists/nomads Russified


17 Russian Empire Became multi-ethnic through conquest (Slavs, pastoralists, Siberians) Wealth in agriculture, furs, mineral deposits Peter the Great: , westernization and modernization Catherine the Great: , Enlightened despot

18 Chinese Empire Stopped possible maritime expansion but grew empire to the north and west Qing dynasty or Manchu ( ), they were from Manchuria and had conquered the Chinese Brought Mongolia, Xinjiang, and Tibet under Chinese control or “unified” Treaty of Nerchinsk (1689) with Russia to set boundary Court of Colonial Affairs, local rulers Change in that area: not cosmopolitan, nomadic pastoralists removed from world stage

19 Mughal Empire in India Rare period of political unity, 1526-1707
Divided between Muslims and Hindus Akbar: had tolerance toward Hindu majority, married Hindu princess, put Hindus in political-military elite, built temples, lessened restrictions on women, removed jizya/tax, House of Worship, Indian-Persian-Turkic culture Opposition from Shayk Ahmad Sirhindi: it is the women’s fault Aurangzeb: reversal of Akbar’s policy Opposition movements weakened India

20 Ottoman Empire The “Sword of Islam”: conquered and defending Islam
Women had many rights, more than Europeans Balkans: Christian majority, mostly tolerance, devshirme Europeans worried about a Muslim takeover, Suleiman


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