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Welcome Back! Get our your World History Notebook and update your table of contents: 57- Notes the Cold War I 58 – Iron Curtain Speech I Need your projects if you were absent or if it is LATE!
EXAMS Please bring your 1 st Quarter notebook contents on MONDAY, January 6 th – So that we can begin reviewing for the exam. 1 st period exam- Monday January 13 th 2 nd period exam- Tuesday January 14 th 3 rd period exam- Wednesday January 15 th 4 th period exam- Thursday January 16 th
FORMAT The World History Exam Format: – Made by North Carolina – Cumulative (aka EVERYTHING) – 41 Multiple Choice Questions – 90 Minutes – 1 constructed response (short answer) – This is 20% of your FINAL GRADE
Superpowers: United States vs. Soviet Union After WWII devastated much of Europe, two great powers remained: The U.S. and Soviet Union. These nations were known as Superpowers. – Superpower: nations stronger than other powerful nations. The Cold War between these two nations will cast a shadow over the world for more than 40 years. – Cold War: A state of political tension and military rivalry between nations that stops short of full-scale war.
The Iron Curtain The tension began after WWII when each Superpower formed a military alliance made up of nations that it occupied or protected. – The U.S. led up NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) in western Europe. – The Soviet Union led the Warsaw pact in Easter Europe. These two alliance systems faced each other along the Iron Curtain, a tense line between the democratic west and the communist east.
A Wall divides Berlin In the 1950’s Berlin became a key focus of the Cold war. Berlin was split into the Democratic West Berlin and the Communist East Berlin. – West Berlin became known for its peace and prosperity. – Unhappy with communism and angry over low-wages, East Berlin workers decided to flee to West Berlin. In order to stop the workers from leaving, East Berlin built a massive concrete barrier, topped with barbed wire and patrolled by guards, thus creating the Berlin Wall
Arms Race One of the most terrifying aspects of the cold war was the arms race. At first the U.S. was the only nuclear power, but by 1949, the Soviet Union has also developed nuclear weapons. By 1953, Each superpower had developed the hydrogen bomb, much more destructive than the Atomic bomb.
The threat of Nuclear War Critics argued that a nuclear war would destroy both sides. Yet, each super power wanted to deter the other from launching its nuclear weapons, so each side engaged in a race to match the other’s new weapons. The result was a “balance of terror.” The world’s people lived in constant fear of Nuclear doom.
Disarmament Talks To reduce the threat of nuclear war, both sides met to discuss disarmament. Their mutual distrust slowed progress. IN 1969 The U.S. and Soviet Union began Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) to limit the number of nuclear weapons held by each side. In 1972 and 1979 both sides signed agreements setting these limits.
ABMs One agreement of the limitations talks was limiting Anti-ballistic missiles (ABMs). – Anti-ballistic missiles-missiles that could shoot down other missiles from hostile countries. – The theory was that ABMs were dangerous to the balance of terror because by giving one side some protection against the other, it might encourage the protected side to attack.
Détente These disarmament talks led to an era of détente – or relaxation of tensions during the 1970’s. The American strategy under détente was to restrain the Soviet Union though diplomatic agreements rather than by military means. Détente ended in 1979 when the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan.
The Cold War goes Global By the late 1960’s Britain, France, and China had developed their own nuclear weapons. To keep the Arms race from spreading any further, in 1968 many nations signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). – Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) -Nations agreed not to develop nuclear weapons or to stop the proliferation, or spread of nuclear weapons.
Alliances Form In addition to NATO, the U.S. and its Allies formed: – Southeast-Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) including: U.S., Britain, France, Australia, Pakistan, Thailand, New Zealand, and the Philippines – Central Treaty Organization (CENTO) Britain, Turkey, Iran, Pakistan. – The U.S. also formed military Alliances with individual nations like Japan and South Korea. In addition to the Warsaw pact, The Soviet Union formed: – Alliances with the governments in Africa and Asia. – An alliance with communist China from 1949-1960 – The Soviet Union and its Allies were known as the Soviet Bloc.
The American global Presence Unlike the Soviets, The Americans established army, navy, and air forces bases around the globe. By the end of the Cold war, the Soviets faced military nightmare of encirclement by an enemy. American army camps, naval stations, and air bases spread across Europe, Asia, North American, and the Pacific islands, while American fleets patrolled the world’s oceans.
Cuba goes Communist One of the most serious Cold war Conflicts involved the Latin American Nation of Cuba, 90 miles off the coast of Florida Fidel Castro organized an armed rebellion against the corrupt dictator who then ruled Cuba.
Cuban Revolution In 1959, Castro was victorious and set out to transform the country. – During this time period known as the Cuban revolution, Castro sought the support of the Soviet Union. Castro worked to transform Cuba by: Nationalizing businesses putting most land under government control Restricting Cubans’ political freedom – Critics were jailed or silenced – Many fled to Florida where they were granted asylum.
Bay of Pigs In 1961, President John. F. Kennedy supported an invasion attempt by U.S. trained Cuban exiles. The Bay of Pigs Invasion, known for the bay where invaders came ashore in Cuba. However, it quickly ended in failure when Castro’s forces captured invaders. The U.S. imposed a trade embargo on Cuba that remains in effect today.
The Cuban missile crisis In 1962 the Soviet Union sent Nuclear missiles to Cuba. President Kennedy responded by imposing a naval blockade that prevented further soviet shipments. Kennedy demanded that the Soviet Union remove its nuclear missiles from Cuba. For a few tense days, the world faced a risk of nuclear war over the issue.
Cuban Missile Crisis Finally, on October 28 th, 1962. Soviet Premier, Nikita Khrushchev agreed to remove the Soviet Missiles, and war was averted.
America’s Policy of Containment The United States practiced Containment strategy toward communism. – Containment - This was a strategy or policy of containing communism by keeping it within its existing boundaries and preventing further expansion. This strategy meant supporting any government facing invasion or internal rebellion by communists.
Making Comparisons Communist Countries The communist party makes all political decisions. Command economy where the government makes most economic decisions and owns most property The political leadership values obedience, discipline, and economic security. Democratic Capitalism Countries The people and their elected representative make decisions. Market economy where private consumers and producers make most economic decisions and own most property. The political leadership values freedom and prosperity.