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CHPT 9 WATER Nutrition. Water Humans cant live but for a few days without water…10-14 days.

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Presentation on theme: "CHPT 9 WATER Nutrition. Water Humans cant live but for a few days without water…10-14 days."— Presentation transcript:

1 CHPT 9 WATER Nutrition

2 Water Humans cant live but for a few days without water…10-14 days

3 Why is water important? It is the main component of all body cells It makes up 50-60% of the body wt in normal adults Men have more water wt due to the size of their muscles and muscle tissue Newborns have the highest % of H2O =75% of their body is water

4 Other functions of water Solvent for nutrients and body wastes Aids in chemical reactions Transports nutrients and wastes in blood Needed for hydrolysis and digestion Lubricates joints Regulated body temp by evaporation of perspiration Serves as a shock absorber

5 Water content in muscle is greater than water content in fat

6 Body Water Content Obese Normal Muscular 40% 60% 70%


8 2 compartment of body water 1. Intracellular – is the water within the cells, its approx. 65% of total body fluid 2. Extracellular – is the water outside of the cells, approx. 35% of total body fluid (includes intravascular & interstitial fluid)

9 What do these compartments mean? Intracellular – is inside the cell where K+ is found Intravascular – inside the blood vessel Interstitial – around the tissues Extracellular – is both intravascular (inside of the blood vessel) AND interstitial…this is where Na+ is found


11 How does the pie from the previous slide fit into the body exactly? TIP: Water should always be in the 1 st space first Water should always be in the 2nd space second in order for the normal body to function And we try not to allow water to move to the 3 rd space

12 Cell = 1 st space Extracellular (interstitial & intravascular) = 2 nd space Abdomen and feet = 3 rd space (ascites) 1 cell 2 extracellular/ interstitial 2 blood vessel (Intravasc ular)

13 Best source of water? Is in drinking water Beverages of all other types are 2 nd best Food contains water, like fruits, soups, jello, milk, vegetables Energy metabolism produces H20

14 Estimated daily fluid intake for adults Ingested liquids1,500ml Water in foods 700ml Water from oxidation 200ml » __________ TOTAL 2,400ml

15 HOMEOSTASIS Keeping the body = or at a balance Our body has this mechanism related to fluids called: Fluid & electrolyte balance This balance is for too little water (dehydration) or fluid overload (too much water) in the body…both can occur

16 Fluid & electrolyte balance Water lost by healthy individuals through feces, perspiration and the respiratory tract, must be replaced in both volume and in electrolyte content

17 Specific Gravity (S.G.) This is a measurement of the weight of the particles in urine compared to the water in urine If you have lots of particles = heavy urine=big number like If you have diluted urine due to excess urination = light weight urine = low number like

18 Urine Specific Gravity Normal S.G. complete range Normal urine is This means that urine is straw yellow in color and that the patient is urinating a minimum of 30mL/hr Small machine or test strip can tell you the S.G. of urine

19 Equipment to test S.G.

20 Vomiting & Diarrhea This type of illness where there is great water loss, must be replaced quickly IVFs in this case would be needed

21 Symptoms of dehydration Hypotension - (not enough fluid in the blood vessels to be pumped everywhere throughout your body) Thirst Eyes are sunken in Mucus membranes are dry Dry skin/decreased skin turgor Fever Tachycardia Mental disorientation Specific gravity of <1.010 = clear, clear urine

22 Treatment of this water loss Replacement of the electrolytes and fluids IVFs are a replacement if the amount lost is great Drinking by mouth is preferred

23 Sensible vs. insensible loss SENSIBLE LOSS – is noticeable loss of water as in urine loss…normal loss INSENSIBLE LOSS – unnoticed, water loss is in feces, perspiration and respiration

24 Normal daily water loss The body must excrete 500ml of water as urine each day in order to get rid of the waste products of metabolism This is 500 divided by 24 hrs= 20.8cc/hr + what we sweat and breathe off therefore, We should be excreting at least 30cc/hr minimum

25 DEHYDRATION & OSMOSIS Water moves through the cell walls by this mechanism Remember water likes to dilute stuff Therefore, water moves from an area with less stuff, to an area with lots of stuff to dilute it Where salt or protein is…water follows

26 ELECTROLYTES Na+ Cl- K+ These electrolytes maintain the balance between intracellular and extracellular fluid Intravascular & Interstitial

27 Potassium K+ Is the principal electrolyte in INTRAcellular fluid

28 Sodium Na+ Is the principal electrolyte in extracellular fluid

29 Why we get thirsty? If the cell (1 st space) becomes dehydrated, as in the body lost water, we become thirsty

30 Why else can you become thirsty??? When the electrolytes in the extracellular fluid are increased (hypertonic solution as in the consumption of high sugar or salt), the intracellular fluid moves out of the cell to the extracellular fluid to try and dilute it or push the particles away from each other This causes…..

31 Osmosis The water from the inside of the cell (intracellular) to move out of the cell (osmosis) shrinking the cell = dehydration of the cell occurs = thirst

32 Is there any safety mechanism in the body to prevent this from happening? YES…….. 2 mechanisms try and prevent the body from getting dehydrated: 1) ADH 2) Aldosterone

33 The hypothalamus saves the day! It is responsible for regulating appetite and thirst. The hypothalamus is located at the base of the brain

34 During this time… When the cell (1st space) releases all of its water to the extracellular fluid to try and separate those particles to dilute them, the cell shrinks and the body says ught ohhhh The hypothalamus sends a message to the pituitary gland to secrete ADH (antidiuretic hormone) when the electrolytes become too concentrated in the blood

35 PITUITARY GLAND Known as the Master Gland It helps keep water in the blood via the kidneys It controls growth by sending growth hormones It aids in releasing pitocin and sending breastmilk out of the breasts It aids in reproduction by sending sex hormones out to make a baby

36 ADH (anti-diuretic hormone) By the hypothalamus sending the pituitary gland a message to excrete ADH, the ADH goes to the kidney tubule and tells it to hold water and to reabsorb that water back into the bloodstream, rather than to excrete it or urinate it out, ADH is (against diuresis), anti-diuretic If you didnt have ADH, then the water that was in the cells would now move out into the extracellular space to help dilute the high sugar or high salt you ate, the cells become dehydrated, then the kidney would pee out the water in the extracellular fluid and the body would be empty of water…very bad

37 What do you say when this process happens in the body? When the cell becomes empty of water because the ICF moved to the ECF to push particles apart, your mouth and tongue know your cells are empty of water and your hypothalamus knows you are thirsty….so you say boy am I thirsty and you drink water

38 So what does ADH do for the body? When that ADH stops the water from leaving the renal tubule, it can then be absorbed back into the blood and extracellular space and help push fluid and salts back into the bloodstream It puts back just enough Na+ and K+ and that gets added to the water that wasnt allowed to leave and it gets returned to circulation Its the bodys way of getting its own drink of water from itself

39 2 nd method of homeostasis our body has to prevent from dehydration When you get dehydrated, the hypothalamus sends a 2 nd message to the pituitary to send a messenger known as ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone) The pituitary sends the messenger ACTH to the adrenal glands that sit on the kidneys to wake up aldosterone The hormone aldosterone ( a salt hormone) is sent out to help increase the Na+ reabsorption in the kidneys tubule and to send the salt to the blood stream so that now…where there is extra Na+, water follows

40 Hopefully… With the hormones ADH & Aldosterone, any dehydration can be fixed and the body will resume its normal pattern of having fluid in the cells 1 st Fluid in the blood and interstitial area 2nd

41 What if another problem occurs….

42 ADH gone wild (part I)! Heyyy-ooooo!!!!!

43 There are times when the body/brain cannot control ADH If a patient has a tumor on the pituitary gland, ADH may not be able to be made at all… This is a serious condition and leads to serious results

44 Fancy word for this condition… Diabetes Insipidous (D.I.) NOT DIABETES MELLITUS – inadequate production of insulin causing difficulty in carbohydrate metabolism Diabetes – a general term for diseases marked by excessive urination D.I. – polyuria & polydipsia caused by inadequate secretion of ADH from the pituitary

45 Symptoms of ADH Now its like all you have is DH = diuretic hormone = lots of urine…you need the A back Polyuria Extreme thirst Extreme dehydration Dehydrated Dan Hypotension Tachycardia Tenting of skin Pt continues to urinate and urinate and urinate Specific gravity of < can be as low as 1.005

46 Treatment for D.I. To return the A and give ADH to the body via a drug called vasopressin or Pitressin Comes in a vial that pt can spray into nose This helps concentrate urine again

47 ADH gone wild (part II) What if you had a tumor to the pituitary gland and too much ADH was made? You would have too much against urination and you would hold fluid…you would have against urination This disease is called SIADH = (ADH) Symptom of inappropriate ADH..its inappropriately made…its too much

48 Aldosterone Any time the body has too much fluid on board, it spreads out the Na+ particles in the extracellular spaces. Now the cell appears to be concentrated and the extracellular space looks diluted. This triggers the nervous system to try and help. Hypothalamus calls to the pituitary to send ACTH to wake up the adrenals to send Aldosterone to the bloodstream Because aldosterone is salt, when salt reaches the bloodstream, it will now appear that there are many particles in the extracellular space and now the normal cell moves some of its normal amt. of water into the extracellular space to dilute the Na particles. This now causes the cell to shrink and to re-balance things out

49 Symptoms of SIADH Too much fluid Soggy and overloaded Soggy Sid Extremely high HTN Tachycardia Specific gravity >1.020 more like Dark, dark urine Pt needs a fluid restriction

50 Treatment of SIADH Diuretics such as Lasix (furosemide) Fluid restriction Wt QD

51 How much water does the body need? The amt varies according to: activity, heat and humidity, age, size, and physical condition

52 We need 1ml for every calorie consumed If you eat 2100 calories in a day, then you need 2100ml water for that day It is recommended that we drink 13 8ounce glasses of fluid /day. This is 8 glasses of H20 and at least 5 glasses of other fluids

53 What increases your needs for water Youth Fever Diarrhea Unusual perspiration Vomiting Hemorrhage (loss of blood = loss of fluids)

54 Another balancing mechanism - Acid Base Balance Fluid and electrolyte balance are not the only things to be maintained in the blood… The body must maintain acid-base balance by using a buffer system Your kidneys do this by regulating the hydrogen ions in the body (chemistry)

55 Acids and bases have + and – charges All organs need these charges, especially the heart, to work If they become unbalanced, your body knows it and fixes it…sends bicarb out Your kidneys are responsible to decide which ions to keep and which to excrete out in the urine

56 Normal ph 7 is neutral acid neutral base (acidic) (alkaline) Blood plasma is

57 Buffer system Helps keep the acid-base balance in line Example: If too much HCL is removed from the body when vomiting, your kidneys fix the body to balance out the now base solution

58 Conditions that cause dehydration Heat illness – caused by the excessive perspiration of body fluids with failure to drink sufficient amts of water to replace the lost There are 4 stages of heat illness…

59 4 stages of heat illness Heat fatigue – causes thirst, weakness, fatigue, one should go to a cool place, rest, and drink fluids. Heat cramp – d/t loss of Na+ and K+, causes leg cramps and thirst, one should go to a cool place, rest and drink fluids

60 4 stages of heat illness Heat exhaustion – causes thirst, dizziness, n/v, headache and profuse sweating, one should get into a tub of cool water, 2-3 days of rest and the ingestion of a great deal of water Heat stroke – involves fever, could produce brain and kidney damage, call 911, put pt in chilled water and go to hospital. Pt can die of heat stroke

61 Excess water intake Can be caused by: 1. CHF, heart pump isnt working properly, fluid gets all backed up 2. Hypoproteinemia (not enough protein, water 3 rd spaces to peritoneal cavity=big belly 3. Some infections 4. Some cancers 5. ADH = SIADH, Soggy Sid

62 In Review… Our body is very smart It knows how to balance out problems that occur with water Osmosis, hypothalamus, pituitary, ADH, aldosterone, and the kidneys is what balances the water in the body

63 Question?????? When one become dehydrated, what happens to the concentration of the extracellular fluid compartment?

64 QUESTION????? When one can not eliminate fluid from the body but is still consuming more than enough water, What happens to fluid in the extracellular fluid compartment?

65 QUESTION????? Water is lost or gained in what fluid compartment first 2 nd space then 1 st space to protect the 1 st space

66 QUESTION??? What is fluid volume deficit? What might cause a fluid volume deficit? What happens to the concentration of solute in the extracellular fluid compartment when one is lacking fluid or in a fluid volume deficit? What hormones tells the kidneys to conserve what ever water is left?

67 What is this a picture of?


69 THE END The need to replace body fluids is greater than the need to replace electrolytes. Our thirst mechanism does not match our hydration state, so it is best to consume more fluid than thirst dictates. Replacing Fluid Losses Water intake during prolonged exercise reduces the risk of dehydration and optimizes performance. Drinking too much fluid can result in hyponatremia (low levels of plasma sodium), which can cause confusion, disorientation, and seizures

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