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Living Things What Is Life? Classifying Organisms Domains and Kingdoms The Origin of Life Table of Contents.

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Presentation on theme: "Living Things What Is Life? Classifying Organisms Domains and Kingdoms The Origin of Life Table of Contents."— Presentation transcript:

1 Living Things What Is Life? Classifying Organisms Domains and Kingdoms The Origin of Life Table of Contents

2 Living Things Life Comes From Life Francesco Redi designed one of the first controlled experiments. In his experiment, Redi showed that flies do not spontaneously arise from decaying meat. - What Is Life?

3 Living Things Life Comes From Life Louis Pasteurs carefully controlled experiment demonstrated that bacteria arise only from existing bacteria. - What Is Life?

4 Living Things Look at the section headings and visuals to see what this section is about. Then write what you already know about living things in a graphic organizer like the one below. As you read, write what you learn. What You Know What You Learned 1.Living things grow. 2.Living things are made of cells. 1.Unicellular organisms are composed of only one cell. 2.The cells of living things are composed of chemicals. 3.The cells of organisms use energy to do things they must do. - What Is Life? Using Prior Knowledge

5 Living Things End of Section: What Is Life?

6 Living Things - Classifying Organisms Levels of Classification As you move down the levels of classification, the number of organisms decreases. The organisms at lower levels share more characteristics with each other.

7 Living Things Aristotle and Classification Many hundreds of years before Linnaeus, a Greek scholar named Aristotle developed a classification system for animals. Aristotle first divided animals into those he considered to have blood and those he did not. This graph shows Aristotles classification system for animals with blood. - Classifying Organisms

8 Living Things Aristotle and Classification 3 Reading Graphs: Into how many groups were these animals classified? - Classifying Organisms

9 Living Things Aristotle and Classification Animals that fly Interpreting Data: Which group made up the largest percentage of animals? - Classifying Organisms

10 Living Things Aristotle and Classification 78% Calculating: What percentage of these animals either fly or swim? - Classifying Organisms

11 Living Things Aristotle and Classification Cow- animals that walk, run, or crawl; whale- animals that swim. Inferring: In Aristotles classification, where would a cow be classified? A whale? - Classifying Organisms

12 Living Things Aristotle and Classification Possible answer: This system includes only three categories, so it may not be very useful today. It also does not match that of modern scientists, who use characteristics other than movement to classify animals. For example, frogs and lions belong to very different groups. Predicting: Would Aristotles classification system be used today? Explain. - Classifying Organisms

13 Living Things Taxonomic Keys Taxonomic keys are useful tools for determining the identity of organisms. - Classifying Organisms

14 Living Things eats Evolution and Classification Species with similar evolutionary histories are classified more closely together. These Galapagos finches may have arisen from a single species and changed gradually over time to become three separate species. Notice the differences in their appearance, especially their beaks. - Classifying Organisms

15 Living Things QuestionAnswer Asking Questions Before you read, preview the red headings. In a graphic organizer like the one below, ask a what, why, or how question for each heading. As you read, write the answers to your questions. Why do scientists classify?Scientists classify because they want to organize living things into groups so they are easier to study. What system did Linnaeus use to name organisms? He used a system called binomial nomenclature. What are the levels of classification?Domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species - Classifying Organisms

16 Living Things More on Classifying Living Things Click the PHSchool.com button for an activity about classifying living things. - Classifying Organisms

17 Living Things End of Section: Classifying Organisms

18 Living Things - Domains and Kingdoms Three Domains of Life In the three-domain system of classifications, all known organisms belong to one of three domains–Bacteria, Archaea, or Eukarya.

19 Living Things As you read, compare and contrast the characteristics of organisms in domains Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya by completing a table like the one below. - Domains and Kingdoms Characteristics of Organisms Domain or KingdomCell Type and NumberAble to Make Food? Bacteria Archaea Eukarya: Protists Fungi Plants Animals Prokaryotes; unicellularSome are able to make food No Yes No Prokaryotes; unicellular Eukaryotes; unicellular or multicellular Eukaryotes; multicellular Comparing and Contrasting

20 Living Things Links on Kingdoms Click the SciLinks button for links on kingdoms. - Domains and Kingdoms

21 Living Things End of Section: Domains and Kingdoms

22 Living Things - The Origin of Life The Atmosphere of Early Earth On ancient Earth, water vapor, carbon dioxide, and methane were probably the most abundant gases in the atmosphere. There were frequent volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and violent storms.

23 Living Things As you read, identify the evidence that supports scientists hypothesis of how life arose on Earth. Write the evidence in a graphic organizer like the one below. Origin of life Fossil evidence of achaea-like organisms Fossils dated to be between 3.4 and 3.5 billion years old. - The Origin of Life Hypothesis Evidence Identifying Supporting Evidence

24 Living Things Links on the Origin of Life Click the SciLinks button for links on the origin of life. - The Origin of Life

25 Living Things End of Section: The Origin of Life

26 Living Things Graphic Organizer Water Living space Autotrophs Heterotrophs Food & water need made by eaten by to provide Food Living Things Homeostasis Shelter

27 Living Things End of Section: Graphic Organizer


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