Presentation on theme: "Look at the following patterns. What are the patterns based on"— Presentation transcript:
1 Look at the following patterns. What are the patterns based on Look at the following patterns. What are the patterns based on? What do you observe?A, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, J, Q, K1, 4, 9, 16, 25, 36, 49, 64, 813, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24
3 The first pattern established in the periodic table was found in whether an element was a metal, non-metal or a metalloid.
4 Metals Most elements are metals They are found on the left side of the periodic tableAll but 1 of these metals are solids at room temperatureMost metals are malleable, shiny, ductile and good conductors of heat and electricity.
5 Non-MetalsNon-metals are found on the right side of the periodic table (except Hydrogen)Many of the non-metals are gases at room temperatureMost non-metals are NOT malleable, NOT shiny, NOT ductile and NOT good conductors of heat and electricity
6 MetalloidsLocated along a zig-zag line between the metals and non-metalsAlso known as semi-conductorsPossess some of the properties of both metals and non-metalsUsually hard and brittle
7 Bellringer a. Along the zig-zag line Metals b. To the left of the zig-zag linec. To the right of the zig-zag lineMetals2. Non-metals3. Metalloids
8 14.1 Physical propertiesCharacteristics that you can see through direct observation are called physical properties.Physical properties include color, texture, density, brittleness, and state (solid, liquid, or gas).Melting point, boiling point, and specific heat are also physical properties.
9 14.1 Chemical propertiesProperties that can only be observed when one substance changes into a different substance are called chemical properties.Any change that transforms one substance into a different substance is called a chemical change.
10 14.1 The Periodic TableThe periodic table organizes the elements according to their chemical properties and their physical properties.The periodic table is organized in order of increasing atomic number.
11 14.1 The Periodic TableThe periodic table is further divided into periods and groups.Each horizontal row is called a period.Each vertical column is called a group.
12 Rows/PeriodsIn the periodic table, the row are referred to as periods.There are 7 periods in the current periodic table.Each period represents the outermost shell of electrons used by the atoms in that row.
13 Columns/GroupsIn the periodic table, the columns/groups are also referred to as “families” since the elements in them all have a lot of properties that are “related”.There are 18 groups.
15 Groups 1 & 2 VERY reactive metals In nature, they can only be found in combination with other elements
16 Group 1 – Alkali Metals Very low densities (most can float) Physical PropertiesChemical PropertiesVery low densities (most can float)Soft enough to be cut with a knifeReact violently with waterReact with halogen family to form saltsOuter shell only contains 1 electron.
17 Group 2 – Alkaline-Earth Metals Physical PropertiesChemical PropertiesSilver colored metalsMore dense and harder than the Alkali MetalsHighly reactive (but not quite as reactive as alkali metals)Outer shell only contains 2 electrons
19 Groups 3-12 Transition Metals Chemical PropertiesNot very reactiveSome will react with oxygen to form rust (or something similar)Transition metals frequently react with each other to form alloys.Zinc + Copper = BrassCopper + Tin + Aluminum = BronzeGold + Nickel + Palladium = White GoldIron + Chromium + Nickel = Steel
20 Groups 13-16All of these groups contain a combination of metals, non metals and metalloids.All are named after the element at the top of the group.Metalloids are contained within these groups
22 Group 17 - Halogens Physical Properties Chemical Properties Exist in all 3 phases of matter at room temperature.VERY reactive non metalsNever found independently in nature…always combinedReact violently with alkali metals to form saltsOuter shell contains 7 electrons
23 Group 18 – Noble Gases Colorless, odorless gases at room temperature Physical PropertiesChemical PropertiesColorless, odorless gases at room temperatureVery stableDo not react with other elementsOuter electron shell is full
24 HydrogenPlaced in Group 1 due to its lone electron in the outer shell, but does not share any characteristics of the alkali metalsColorless, odorless gas at room tempReacts violently with oxygenMost abundant element on earthMore info…
25 BellringerWrite a paragraph about the periodic table. It must include at least 10 words from your vocabulary list. Underline the words.