Presentation on theme: "Look at the following patterns. What are the patterns based on? What do you observe? A, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, J, Q, K 1, 4, 9, 16, 25, 36, 49, 64,"— Presentation transcript:
Look at the following patterns. What are the patterns based on? What do you observe? A, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, J, Q, K 1, 4, 9, 16, 25, 36, 49, 64, 81 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24
The first pattern established in the periodic table was found in whether an element was a metal, non-metal or a metalloid.
Metals Most elements are metals They are found on the left side of the periodic table All but 1 of these metals are solids at room temperature Most metals are malleable, shiny, ductile and good conductors of heat and electricity.
Non-Metals Non-metals are found on the right side of the periodic table (except Hydrogen) Many of the non-metals are gases at room temperature Most non-metals are NOT malleable, NOT shiny, NOT ductile and NOT good conductors of heat and electricity
Metalloids Located along a zig-zag line between the metals and non-metals Also known as semi-conductors Possess some of the properties of both metals and non-metals Usually hard and brittle
Bellringer 1.Metals 2. Non-metals 3. Metalloids a. Along the zig-zag line b. To the left of the zig- zag line c. To the right of the zig- zag line
14.1 Physical properties Characteristics that you can see through direct observation are called physical properties. Physical properties include color, texture, density, brittleness, and state (solid, liquid, or gas). Melting point, boiling point, and specific heat are also physical properties.
14.1 Chemical properties Properties that can only be observed when one substance changes into a different substance are called chemical properties. Any change that transforms one substance into a different substance is called a chemical change.
14.1 The Periodic Table The periodic table organizes the elements according to their chemical properties and their physical properties. The periodic table is organized in order of increasing atomic number.
14.1 The Periodic Table The periodic table is further divided into periods and groups. Each horizontal row is called a period. Each vertical column is called a group.
Rows/Periods In the periodic table, the row are referred to as periods. There are 7 periods in the current periodic table. Each period represents the outermost shell of electrons used by the atoms in that row.
Columns/Groups In the periodic table, the columns/groups are also referred to as families since the elements in them all have a lot of properties that are related. There are 18 groups.
Families of the Periodic Table 13-16
Groups 1 & 2 VERY reactive metals In nature, they can only be found in combination with other elements
Group 1 – Alkali Metals Physical Properties Very low densities (most can float) Soft enough to be cut with a knife Chemical Properties React violently with water React with halogen family to form salts Outer shell only contains 1 electron.
Group 2 – Alkaline-Earth Metals Physical Properties Silver colored metals More dense and harder than the Alkali Metals Chemical Properties Highly reactive (but not quite as reactive as alkali metals) Outer shell only contains 2 electrons
Groups 3-12 Transition Metals Physical Properties – Shiny – Good Conductors – High Melting Points – High Densities – Very malleable & ductile – Hard, strong & tough Used For – Coins – Electric & Heat applications – Structural materials (building & making things)
Groups 3-12 Transition Metals Chemical Properties – Not very reactive – Some will react with oxygen to form rust (or something similar) – Transition metals frequently react with each other to form alloys. Zinc + Copper = Brass Copper + Tin + Aluminum = Bronze Gold + Nickel + Palladium = White Gold Iron + Chromium + Nickel = Steel
Groups All of these groups contain a combination of metals, non metals and metalloids. All are named after the element at the top of the group. Metalloids are contained within these groups
Groups 17 & 18 Nonmetals
Group 17 - Halogens Physical Properties Exist in all 3 phases of matter at room temperature. Chemical Properties VERY reactive non metals Never found independently in nature…always combined React violently with alkali metals to form salts Outer shell contains 7 electrons
Group 18 – Noble Gases Physical Properties Colorless, odorless gases at room temperature Chemical Properties Very stable Do not react with other elements Outer electron shell is full
Hydrogen Placed in Group 1 due to its lone electron in the outer shell, but does not share any characteristics of the alkali metals Colorless, odorless gas at room temp Reacts violently with oxygen Most abundant element on earth More info…
Bellringer Write a paragraph about the periodic table. It must include at least 10 words from your vocabulary list. Underline the words.