3 Periodic Table Organization: Groups or families: 18 columns – elements that have many similar chemical & physical characteristicsPeriods: do not have similarities; total of 7 periods (rows) in the table (Increase Energy as Levels go Down)Go left to right on the periodic table, and the atomic number (protons) increaseTotal of 109 known elements on the table
4 MetalsMetals are the majority of the elements on the periodic table of elementsMetals are good conductors of electricity, usually have a high densityMost are shinny, and malleable (the ability to be shaped)Include such things are calcium, sodium, titanium, etc.
5 Alkali MetalsElements with only 1 electron in the outermost energy levelLocated in Group 1 of periodic TableDo not have complete outer energy levels; therefore, they are not stable or inertThey tend to lose their one valance electron very easily to become stableHIGHLY REACTIVE
6 Transition MetalsLess reactive than Alkali metals and Alkaline Earth metalsShiny metalsGood conductors of electricityExamples are iron and copper
7 Nonmetals Have the opposite properties from metals Have a dull luster and are usually brittleLow densities and melt at a lower temperatureDo not conduct electricity wellExamples: sulfur, noble gases, etc.
8 MetalloidsThe elements in the staircase (just to the left and right of the staircase line)Have properties of both metals and nonmetalsThey are solids that conduct heat and electricity better than nonmetals but not as well as metalsExample is silicon which is a semiconductor (it is somewhere between a conductor and insulator of electricity)
9 Noble Gases Located in the far right in Group 18 Tend not to combine with other elementsOutermost energy level is holding the maximum number of electrons possible
10 Noble Gases They are stable or inert Elements that are NOT noble gases, do not have all electrons filled in outer energy levelsElements with completely full energy levels are extremely stable and tend to react with almost nothing else
11 Halogens Group 17 Elements with 7 valance electrons Not stable or inert (since the outermost energy level is not filled)Halogen elements tend to gain one electron from other atoms so they can become more stable
12 VocabularyAtomic mass units – unit used to measure the mass of subatomic particlesAtomic number – the number of protons in an atomFamilies – columns of elements in the Periodic TableMetalloids – an element that has properties of both metals and nonmetals
13 VocabularyMetals – elements which are good conductors of electricity, are malleable, and are shinnyNonmetals – elements that are poor conductors of electricity, are brittle, and have low melting pointsPeriodic table – chart that organizes all known elements according to atomic number