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The Periodic Table of Elements

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Presentation on theme: "The Periodic Table of Elements"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Periodic Table of Elements

2 Periodic Table of Elements

3 Periodic Table Organization:
Groups or families: 18 columns – elements that have many similar chemical & physical characteristics Periods: do not have similarities; total of 7 periods (rows) in the table (Increase Energy as Levels go Down) Go left to right on the periodic table, and the atomic number (protons) increase Total of 109 known elements on the table

4 Metals Metals are the majority of the elements on the periodic table of elements Metals are good conductors of electricity, usually have a high density Most are shinny, and malleable (the ability to be shaped) Include such things are calcium, sodium, titanium, etc.

5 Alkali Metals Elements with only 1 electron in the outermost energy level Located in Group 1 of periodic Table Do not have complete outer energy levels; therefore, they are not stable or inert They tend to lose their one valance electron very easily to become stable HIGHLY REACTIVE

6 Transition Metals Less reactive than Alkali metals and Alkaline Earth metals Shiny metals Good conductors of electricity Examples are iron and copper

7 Nonmetals Have the opposite properties from metals
Have a dull luster and are usually brittle Low densities and melt at a lower temperature Do not conduct electricity well Examples: sulfur, noble gases, etc.

8 Metalloids The elements in the staircase (just to the left and right of the staircase line) Have properties of both metals and nonmetals They are solids that conduct heat and electricity better than nonmetals but not as well as metals Example is silicon which is a semiconductor (it is somewhere between a conductor and insulator of electricity)

9 Noble Gases Located in the far right in Group 18
Tend not to combine with other elements Outermost energy level is holding the maximum number of electrons possible

10 Noble Gases They are stable or inert
Elements that are NOT noble gases, do not have all electrons filled in outer energy levels Elements with completely full energy levels are extremely stable and tend to react with almost nothing else

11 Halogens Group 17 Elements with 7 valance electrons
Not stable or inert (since the outermost energy level is not filled) Halogen elements tend to gain one electron from other atoms so they can become more stable

12 Vocabulary Atomic mass units – unit used to measure the mass of subatomic particles Atomic number – the number of protons in an atom Families – columns of elements in the Periodic Table Metalloids – an element that has properties of both metals and nonmetals

13 Vocabulary Metals – elements which are good conductors of electricity, are malleable, and are shinny Nonmetals – elements that are poor conductors of electricity, are brittle, and have low melting points Periodic table – chart that organizes all known elements according to atomic number

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