2Elements within the same family of the periodic table have similar properties because they have the same number of valence electrons.
3The Most Active Metals Alkali Metals Family 1 Hydrogen isn’t considered an alkali metal1 valence electronSoft, silver-white, shiny metalsGood conductors of heat and electricityExtremely reactive (react violently with water)Never found uncombined in nature
4Alkaline Earth Metals: Family 2 of Periodic TableNever found in nature uncombined2 valence electronsLose the 2 electronsNot quite as reactiveHigh melting & boiling pointsSilver in color
5Transition Metals Transition metals Families 3 through 12 Properties similar to one another and other metalsCopper, tin, zinc, iron, nickel, gold, and silverGood conductors of heat & electricity1 or 2 valence electronsLose 1 or both electrons when combining with other atoms
6From Metals to Nonmetals Boron Family3 valence electonsBoron is a metalloidOther elements, including aluminum, are metalsBoron is hard and brittleAluminum is 3rd most abundant metal in Earth’s crust
7Carbon Family Family 14 Atoms have 4 valence electrons Carbon is nonmetalSilicon and germanium are metalloidsTin and lead are metalsSilicon is 2nd most abundant element in Earth’s crust
8Nitrogen Family Family 15 Atoms have 5 valence electrons Share electrons when they bond with other atoms.Nitrogen is most abundant (78%) element in Earth’s atmosphereAntimony, white & red phosphorus, bismuth, and arsenic all have five electrons in the outermost energy level of their atoms. Nonetheless, they are strikingly different from each other in both physical properties and chemical behavior. Nitrogen is a nonmetallic gas; phosphorus is a solid nonmetal; arsenic and antimony are metalloids; and bismuth is a typical metal.
9Oxygen Family Family 16 Atoms have 6 valence electrons Elements share electrons when forming compoundsOxygen is most abundant element in Earth’s crustOxygen forms ozone (O3)
10The Halogens Halogen Family Family 17 Atoms have 7 valence electrons Most active nonmetals1 electron will fill outer energy levelVery reactiveNever found free in natureReact with alkali metals very easilyFluorine is most active halogen
11The Noble Gases Noble Gases Family 18 All elements are unreactive Also called inert gasesExcept for helium, all elements have 8 valence electronsAll noble gases are found in Earth’s atmosphereRadon is used to treat certain cancers.
12Rare-Earth Elements Lanthanide Series Soft, malleable metals High luster & conductivityActinide SeriesAll actinides are radioactive