Presentation on theme: "5.3 Chemical Families. Elements within the same family of the periodic table have similar properties because they have the same number of valence electrons."— Presentation transcript:
5.3 Chemical Families
Elements within the same family of the periodic table have similar properties because they have the same number of valence electrons.
The Most Active Metals Alkali Metals Family 1 Hydrogen isnt considered an alkali metal 1 valence electron Soft, silver-white, shiny metals Good conductors of heat and electricity Extremely reactive (react violently with water) Never found uncombined in nature
Alkaline Earth Metals: Family 2 of Periodic Table Never found in nature uncombined 2 valence electrons Lose the 2 electrons Not quite as reactive High melting & boiling points Silver in color
Transition Metals Transition metals Families 3 through 12 Properties similar to one another and other metals Copper, tin, zinc, iron, nickel, gold, and silver Good conductors of heat & electricity 1 or 2 valence electrons Lose 1 or both electrons when combining with other atoms
From Metals to Nonmetals Boron Family 3 valence electons Boron is a metalloid Other elements, including aluminum, are metals Boron is hard and brittle Aluminum is 3 rd most abundant metal in Earths crust
Carbon Family Family 14 Atoms have 4 valence electrons Carbon is nonmetal Silicon and germanium are metalloids Tin and lead are metals Silicon is 2 nd most abundant element in Earths crust
Nitrogen Family Family 15 Atoms have 5 valence electrons Share electrons when they bond with other atoms. Nitrogen is most abundant (78%) element in Earths atmosphere Antimony, white & red phosphorus, bismuth, and arsenic all have five electrons in the outermost energy level of their atoms. Nonetheless, they are strikingly different from each other in both physical properties and chemical behavior. Nitrogen is a nonmetallic gas; phosphorus is a solid nonmetal; arsenic and antimony are metalloids; and bismuth is a typical metal.
Oxygen Family Family 16 Atoms have 6 valence electrons Elements share electrons when forming compounds Oxygen is most abundant element in Earths crust Oxygen forms ozone (O 3 )
The Halogens Halogen Family Family 17 Atoms have 7 valence electrons Most active nonmetals 1 electron will fill outer energy level Very reactive Never found free in nature React with alkali metals very easily Fluorine is most active halogen
The Noble Gases Noble Gases Family 18 All elements are unreactive Also called inert gases Except for helium, all elements have 8 valence electrons All noble gases are found in Earths atmosphere Radon is used to treat certain cancers.
Rare-Earth Elements Lanthanide Series Soft, malleable metals High luster & conductivity Actinide Series All actinides are radioactive