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What are the characteristics of Acids & Bases? ACIDS BASES TASTE SOUR BITTER TASTE SOUR BITTER FEEL STINGSON SKIN SLIPPERY,SMOOTH FEEL STINGSON SKIN SLIPPERY,SMOOTH.

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Presentation on theme: "What are the characteristics of Acids & Bases? ACIDS BASES TASTE SOUR BITTER TASTE SOUR BITTER FEEL STINGSON SKIN SLIPPERY,SMOOTH FEEL STINGSON SKIN SLIPPERY,SMOOTH."— Presentation transcript:

1 What are the characteristics of Acids & Bases? ACIDS BASES TASTE SOUR BITTER TASTE SOUR BITTER FEEL STINGSON SKIN SLIPPERY,SMOOTH FEEL STINGSON SKIN SLIPPERY,SMOOTH REACTION REACTS WITH METALSNO REACTION REACTION REACTS WITH METALSNO REACTION ELECTRICAL ELECTROLYTEELECTROLYTE ELECTRICAL ELECTROLYTEELECTROLYTE CONDUCTIVITY (BOTH CONDUCT ELECTRICITY)

2 What is the definition of acid/base? ARRHENIUS ARRHENIUS ACID: A SUBSTANCE THAT PROVIDES A H + ION ACID: A SUBSTANCE THAT PROVIDES A H + ION BASE: A SUBSTANCE THAT PROVIDES A OH - ION BASE: A SUBSTANCE THAT PROVIDES A OH - ION BRONSTED-LOWRY BRONSTED-LOWRY ANY SUBSTANCE THAT DONATES A PROTON (H + ) ANY SUBSTANCE THAT DONATES A PROTON (H + ) ANY SUBSTANCE THAT ACCEPTS A PROTON (H + ) ANY SUBSTANCE THAT ACCEPTS A PROTON (H + ) LEWIS LEWIS ANY SUBSTANCE THAT ACCEPTS AN ELECTRON PAIR ANY SUBSTANCE THAT ACCEPTS AN ELECTRON PAIR ANY SUBSTANCE THAT DONATES AN ELECTRON PAIR ANY SUBSTANCE THAT DONATES AN ELECTRON PAIR

3 HOW DO WE MEASURE ACIDS AND BASES? INDICATORS A SUBSTANCE THAT TURNS ONE COLOR IN AN ACIDIC SOLUTION AND ANOTHER COLOR IN A BASIC SOLUTION SOME INDICATORS ARE: LITMUS: DYE THAT COMES FROM A LICHEN LITMUS: DYE THAT COMES FROM A LICHEN PHENOLPHTHALEIN: INDICATES ONLY BASES PHENOLPHTHALEIN: INDICATES ONLY BASES UNIVERSAL INDICATOR: UNIVERSAL INDICATOR: ACID, NEUTRALS, BASES ACID, NEUTRALS, BASES CABBAGE JUICE: CABBAGE JUICE: ACIDS, NEUTRAL, BASE ACIDS, NEUTRAL, BASE

4 WHAT IS THE pH scale? p(otential) of H(ydrogen)= -1 times the base 10 logarithm of the H 3 O + -1 times the base 10 logarithm of the H 3 O + Concentration in moles per liter Therefore, each one-unit change in pH represents a 10-fold change in concentration Therefore, each one-unit change in pH represents a 10-fold change in concentration In pure 25 C, both H 3 O + and OH - concentrations are In pure 25 C, both H 3 O + and OH - concentrations are 1.0 x M 1.0 x M Acids have pH of less than 7 Acids have pH of less than 7 Bases have pH more than 7 Bases have pH more than 7 Neutral has pH of 7 Neutral has pH of 7

5 What is a common reaction of acids and bases? Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs When an acid loses a H + ion it becomes its conjugate base For example, when HCl loses an H + ion it becomes Cl - (conjugate base) NH 3 + H 2 O NH OH - NH 3 + H 2 O NH OH - (BASE) (ACID) (CONJ ACID) (CONJ BASE) (BASE) (ACID) (CONJ ACID) (CONJ BASE)

6 HOW DO WE NAME ACIDS AND BASES? BASES: USE SAME RULES AS NAMING COMPOUNDS EXAMPLE: NaOH SODIUM HYDROXIDE NOW YOU TRY: Ca(OH)2 KOH Mg(OH)2 CALCIUM HYDROXIDE POTASSIUM HYDROXIDE MAGNESIUM HYDROXIDE

7 HOW DO WE NAME ACIDS? ACIDS: AN ACIDS NAME COMES FROM THE ANION IT PRODUCES WHEN IT DISSOCIATES. HERE ARE SOME RULES; ACIDS: AN ACIDS NAME COMES FROM THE ANION IT PRODUCES WHEN IT DISSOCIATES. HERE ARE SOME RULES; IF THE ANION ENDS IN IDE CHANGE IT TO IC AND ADD THE WORD HYDRO IN FRONT; IF THE ANION ENDS IN IDE CHANGE IT TO IC AND ADD THE WORD HYDRO IN FRONT; HCl HYDROGEN CHLORIDE HYDROCHLORIC ACID HCl HYDROGEN CHLORIDE HYDROCHLORIC ACID IF THE ANION ENDS IN ATE, CHANGE IT TO IC AND DO NOT ADD A PREFIX IF THE ANION ENDS IN ATE, CHANGE IT TO IC AND DO NOT ADD A PREFIX H 2 SO 4 HYDROGEN SULFATE SULFURIC ACID H 2 SO 4 HYDROGEN SULFATE SULFURIC ACID IF THE NAME ENDS IN ITE, CHANGE IT TO OUS AND DO NOT ADD A PREFIx IF THE NAME ENDS IN ITE, CHANGE IT TO OUS AND DO NOT ADD A PREFIx H 2 SO 3 HYDROGEN SULFITE SULFUROUS ACID H 2 SO 3 HYDROGEN SULFITE SULFUROUS ACID

8 PROBLEM SOLVING 1. If th pH dropped from 4 to 2, the concentration of H 3 O + changes by a factor a. of 10b. of 100c. of 2d. of 1/ What is the pH of a solution that has a H 3 O + concentration of 5.13 x ? 3. How would you name the following acids: a. HBr b. H 2 CO 3 c. HF d. HNO 3 4. What is the concentratrion of H 3 O + ion in pure water ?


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