Presentation on theme: "What are the characteristics of Acids & Bases?"— Presentation transcript:
1 What are the characteristics of Acids & Bases? TASTE SOUR BITTERFEEL STINGS ON SKIN SLIPPERY,SMOOTHREACTION REACTS WITH METALS NO REACTIONELECTRICAL ELECTROLYTE ELECTROLYTECONDUCTIVITY (BOTH CONDUCT ELECTRICITY)
2 What is the definition of acid/base? ARRHENIUSACID: A SUBSTANCE THAT PROVIDES A H+ IONBASE: A SUBSTANCE THAT PROVIDES A OH- IONBRONSTED-LOWRYANY SUBSTANCE THAT DONATES A PROTON (H+)ANY SUBSTANCE THAT ACCEPTS A PROTON (H+)LEWISANY SUBSTANCE THAT ACCEPTS AN ELECTRON PAIRANY SUBSTANCE THAT DONATES AN ELECTRON PAIR
3 HOW DO WE MEASURE ACIDS AND BASES? INDICATORSA SUBSTANCE THAT TURNS ONE COLOR IN AN ACIDIC SOLUTION AND ANOTHER COLOR IN A BASIC SOLUTIONSOME INDICATORS ARE:LITMUS: DYE THAT COMES FROM A LICHENPHENOLPHTHALEIN: INDICATES ONLY BASESUNIVERSAL INDICATOR:ACID, NEUTRALS, BASESCABBAGE JUICE:ACIDS, NEUTRAL, BASE
4 p(otential) of H(ydrogen)= WHAT IS THE pH scale?p(otential) of H(ydrogen)=-1 times the base 10 logarithm of the H3O+Concentration in moles per literTherefore, each one-unit change in pH represents a 10-fold change in concentrationIn pure 25◦ C, both H3O+ and OH- concentrations are1.0 x 10-7 MAcids have pH of less than 7Bases have pH more than 7Neutral has pH of 7
5 What is a common reaction of acids and bases? Conjugate Acid-Base PairsWhen an acid loses a H+ ion it becomes its conjugate baseFor example, when HCl loses an H+ ion it becomes Cl- (conjugate base)NH H2O ↔ NH OH-(BASE) (ACID) (CONJ ACID) (CONJ BASE)
6 HOW DO WE NAME ACIDS AND BASES? BASES: USE SAME RULES AS NAMING COMPOUNDSEXAMPLE: NaOH SODIUM HYDROXIDENOW YOU TRY:Ca(OH)2KOHMg(OH)2CALCIUM HYDROXIDEPOTASSIUM HYDROXIDEMAGNESIUM HYDROXIDE
7 HOW DO WE NAME ACIDS?ACIDS: AN ACID’S NAME COMES FROM THE ANION IT PRODUCES WHEN IT DISSOCIATES. HERE ARE SOME RULES;IF THE ANION ENDS IN “IDE” CHANGE IT TO “IC” AND ADD THE WORD “HYDRO” IN FRONT;HCl HYDROGEN CHLORIDE HYDROCHLORIC ACIDIF THE ANION ENDS IN “ATE”, CHANGE IT TO “IC” AND DO NOT ADD A PREFIXH2SO4 HYDROGEN SULFATE SULFURIC ACIDIF THE NAME ENDS IN “ITE”, CHANGE IT TO “OUS” AND DO NOT ADD A PREFIxH2SO3 HYDROGEN SULFITE SULFUROUS ACID
8 PROBLEM SOLVING1. If th pH dropped from 4 to 2, the concentration of H3O+ changes by a factora. of 10 b. of 100 c. of 2 d. of 1/1002. What is the pH of a solution that has a H3O+ concentration of x 10-2?3. How would you name the following acids:a. HBrb. H2CO3c. HFd. HNO34. What is the concentratrion of H3O+ ion in pure water ?
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