Presentation on theme: "Acids and Bases Ch. 8.3 & 8.4. Acids - Names and Formulas 2 types of acids: binary & ternary. Binary acids consist of hydrogen & a negative ion (anion)"— Presentation transcript:
Acids - Names and Formulas 2 types of acids: binary & ternary. Binary acids consist of hydrogen & a negative ion (anion) Ex: hydrochloric acid, HCl Ternary acids consist of hydrogen & a polyatomic anion Ex: nitrous acid, HNO 2 You can usually recognize an acid by the hydrogen at the beginning of the formula
Bases - Names and Formulas Many bases have the hydroxide ion OH - in the formula. Ex: sodium hydroxide, NaOH & calcium hydroxide, Ca(OH) 2. Ammonia, NH 3, is a common base whose formula does not include the hydroxide ion.
Bronsted-Lowry Definitions An acid is proton (H +1 ) donor and a base is a proton acceptor. Consider the reaction of hydrogen fluoride with water. HF + H 2 O H 3 O +1 + F -1
Water Water can behave as either an acid or as a base, and is said to be amphoteric.
Acid Properties Acids taste sour & will burn the skin. Acids turn blue litmus paper red & are colorless in phenolphthalein. Acids react with metals to produce hydrogen gas Ex: Mg + 2HCl MgCl 2 + H 2
Basic Properties Bases have a bitter taste, slippery feel & will blister the skin. Bases turn red litmus paper blue & are dark pink in phenolphthalein. Bases react with acids to form a salt & water Ex: NaOH + HCl NaCl + H 2 O
The pH Scale pH is a logarithmic scale used to indicate the concentrations of acids and bases within a certain range. Neutral solutions have a pH = 7. Further away from 7 = stronger Bases have a pH greater than seven, and acids have a pH less than seven. 0 7 14 Acids NeutralBases
Litmus Paper Base will turn red litmus paper blue Acid will turn blue litmus paper red Hydrangea = more acidic = blue More basic = pink flowers Neutral soil = both blue & pink
Neutralization & Salts Reaction b/t Acid & Base = neutralization Neutralization produces Salt & Water Ex: Squeezing Lemon Juice (contains citric acid) over Fish (contains bases) = neutralizes bitter taste
Buffers Any solution that is resistant to large changes in its pH level Made from mixing a weak acid w/ its salt or mixing a weak base w/ its salt
Electrolytes – What & Why? Electrolytes are what your cells (nerve, heart, muscle) use to carry voltages and electrical impulses (nerve impulses, muscle contractions) to other cells. Kidneys work to keep electrolyte concentrations in your blood constant despite changes in your body. (i.e. - when you exercise, you lose electrolytes (Na & K) through sweat. These electrolytes must be replaced to keep the electrolyte concentrations of your body fluids constant.
Major electrolytes your body needs sodium (Na) +1 potassium (K) +1 chloride (Cl) -1 calcium (Ca) 2+ magnesium (Mg) 2+ bicarbonate (HCO) 3- phosphate (PO 4 ) 2- sulfate (SO 4 ) 2-
Electrolytes – Where? Many sports drinks have NaCl or KCl added. They also have sugar & flavorings to provide your body w/ extra energy & make the drink taste better Ex: Gatorade helps restore the balance of electrolytes in your body. (Pedialyte for small children & athletes = less carbs)