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The Human Body: An Orientation

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1 The Human Body: An Orientation
Chapter 1

2 Objectives: Explain how structure complements function
Name the levels of structural organization List the functions necessary for life List the survival needs of the body Define homeostasis and explain its significance Use correct anatomical terms to describe the body

3 Physiology: the function of the body parts
Anatomy: studies the structure of body parts and their relationship to one another Physiology: the function of the body parts Complementarity of Structure & Function What a structure can do depends on its specific form “Structure dictates function”

4 Subdivisions of Anatomy
Gross or Macroscopic parts visible to naked eye eg. regional, surface, systemic Microscopic Cytology: study of cells Histology: study of tissues Developmental eg. embryology – study changes that occur before birth

5 Physiology Focuses on events at cellular or molecular level
Chemical & physical principles

6 Levels of Structural Organization
chemical  cellular  tissue  organ  organ system  organism

7 Overview of Organ Systems

8 Overview of Organ Systems

9 Overview of Organ Systems

10 Overview of Organ Systems

11 Overview of Organ Systems

12 Overview of Organ Systems

13 Necessary Life Functions for Humans
Maintaining boundaries (inside vs. outside) Movement (internal & external) Responsiveness: sense changes and respond Digestion: break down foods for absorption Metabolism: all chemical reactions in body Excretion: remove wastes Reproduction: cell division, whole organism Growth: increase in size/part

14 Survival Needs Nutrients Oxygen Water
Normal Body Temperature (98.6F or 37C) Atmospheric Pressure

15 Homeostasis Maintain relatively stable internal conditions
Receptor (input)  control center  effector (response) Negative (-) feedback: reduces effect of stimulus Eg. body temp, breathing rate, blood sugar levels Positive (+) feedback: increases response Eg. labor contractions, blood clotting Diseases = homeostatic imbalance




19 The Language of Anatomy

20 Anatomical Position Body erect, feet slightly apart, palm face forward, thumbs pointing out

21 Terms you need to know: Superior (cranial) Inferior (caudal)
Ventral (anterior) Dorsal (posterior) Medial Lateral Intermediate Proximal Distal Superficial (external) Deep (internal) Axial Appendicular Saggital plane Midsaggital/median Parasaggital Frontal (coronal) plane Transverse (horizontal) plane Oblique section

22 Directional Terms

23 Directional Terms

24 Directional Terms

25 Regional Terms Axial: main part of body = head, neck, & trunk
Appendicular: limbs attached to axis

26 The body can be cut (sectioned) along flat surfaces called planes
Sagittal plane: divides into right/left Median or midsagittal (exactly down middle) Parasaggital Frontal/coronal plane: divides into anterior/posterior Transverse/horizontal plane: divides into superior/inferior Oblique: diagonal cuts between horizontal & vertical





31 Which plane is shown below?
brain kidneys thigh heart chest (lungs + heart) head

32 Body Cavities Dorsal body cavity: Cranial cavity
Vertebral/spinal cavity Ventral body cavity Thoracic lungs, heart, trachea, esophagus Abdominopelvic digestive, reproductive, urinary


34 Membranes Serosa: lines ventral body cavity & outer surfaces of organs
Parietal serosa – lines cavity wall Visceral serosa – folds in; covers organs in cavity Serous fluid: lubricates space between membranes

35 Abdominopelvic Quadrants

36 Abdominopelvic Regions

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