11 Survival Needs Nutrients: Used for energy and cell building Carbohydrates = energyProteins and fats= building cell structuresFats= cushion organs and are fuel storagesVitamins and minerals= for chemical reactionsOxygen: chemical reactions require oxygen to occur. Human cells cannot survive without oxygen.
12 Survival Needs Cont…Water (universal solvent): ~60-80% of body weight. Necessary for chemical reactions to occur.Body Temperature: Must be maintained around 98F. If body temp. decreases too low metabolic reactions get slower. If body temp. too high proteins denature (unravel).At both extremes death can occur!!
13 Survival Needs Cont….Atmospheric Pressure: Allows for even exchange between oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) in lungs.At high atmospheric pressures (high altitudes) air becomes too thin and adequate gas exchange may not be possible.
14 Homeostasis 3 Control Factors Receptor Control Center (hypothalamus) Effector
16 2 types of Feedback Mechanisms Negative FeedbackPositive FeedbackMost Common typeResponse of receptor is to do the opposite of the original stimulus.Used in regulating heart rate, glucose (sugar) blood levels, oxygen, carbon dioxide, minerals, body temperature, etc.Least Common TypeResponse of receptor is to amplify original stimulus.Used mainly during pregnancy (contractions) and blood clotting.
17 Anatomical PositionBody erect, feet slightly apart, palms facing forward, thumbs point away from bodyFigure 1.7a
18 Anterior (ventral)*Toward or at the front of the body; in front ofThe breastbone is anterior to the spinePosterior (dorsal)*Toward or at the back of the body; behindThe heart is posterior to the breastbone
19 Orientation and Directional Terms Superior vs. InferiorSuperior: Towards the headThe shoulder is superior to thestomachInferior: Away from headThe ankle is inferior to theknee.
20 *Whereas the terms ventral and anterior are synonymous in humans, this is not the case in four-legged animals. Ventral specifically refers to the "belly" of a vertebrate animal and thus is the inferior surface of four-legged animals. Likewise, although the dorsal and posterior surfaces are the same in humans, the term dorsal specifically refers to an animal's back. Thus, the dorsal surface of four-legged animals is their superior surface.
22 MedialToward or at the midline of the body; on the inner side ofThe heart is medial to the armLateralAway from the midline of the body; on the outer side ofThe arms are lateral to the chest
23 IntermediateBetween a more medial and a more lateral structureThe collarbone is intermediate between the breastbone and shoulder
24 ProximalCloser to the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunkThe elbow is proximal to the wristDistalFarther from the origin of a body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunkThe knee is distal to the thighUsed For Appendages!!
25 Superficial (external) Toward or at the body surfaceThe skin is superficial to the skeletal musclesDeep (internal)Away from the body surface; more internalThe lungs are deep to the skin