Presentation on theme: "Necessities for Life and Body Regions. The 8 necessary life functions for all organisms: 1.Maintaining Boundaries 2.Movement 3.Responsiveness 4.Digestion."— Presentation transcript:
Necessities for Life and Body Regions
The 8 necessary life functions for all organisms: 1.Maintaining Boundaries 2.Movement 3.Responsiveness 4.Digestion 5.Metabolism 6.Excretion 7.Reproduction 8.Growth
Maintaining Boundaries Why do we need to maintain boundaries? What organ system allows us to maintain boundaries?
Movement Why is movement important? What body systems allow us to have movement?
Responsiveness Explain why responsiveness helps us stay alive. What systems are involved in responsiveness?
Digestion What does digesting food provide our bodies? Note: Cells are “digestion factories” that further digest absorbed nutrients.
Metabolism Once food is ingested (taken in) what does metabolism do for us? What two organ systems are involved in metabolism?
Excretion Why is excretion useful? Why do we want to get rid of waste? What organ systems are involved?
Reproduction Why do we want to reproduce at the organismal level? Why do we want to reproduce at the cellular level?
Growth What is necessary for growth to occur?
Survival Needs Nutrients: Used for energy and cell building – Carbohydrates = energy – Proteins and fats= building cell structures – Fats= cushion organs and are fuel storages – Vitamins and minerals= for chemical reactions Oxygen: chemical reactions require oxygen to occur. Human cells cannot survive without oxygen.
Survival Needs Cont… Water (universal solvent): ~60-80% of body weight. Necessary for chemical reactions to occur. Body Temperature: Must be maintained around 98F. If body temp. decreases too low metabolic reactions get slower. If body temp. too high proteins denature (unravel). At both extremes death can occur!!
Survival Needs Cont…. Atmospheric Pressure: Allows for even exchange between oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) in lungs. – At high atmospheric pressures (high altitudes) air becomes too thin and adequate gas exchange may not be possible.
Homeostasis 3 Control Factors – Receptor – Control Center (hypothalamus) – Effector
How do they work together?
2 types of Feedback Mechanisms Negative Feedback Most Common type Response of receptor is to do the opposite of the original stimulus. Used in regulating heart rate, glucose (sugar) blood levels, oxygen, carbon dioxide, minerals, body temperature, etc. Positive Feedback Least Common Type Response of receptor is to amplify original stimulus. Used mainly during pregnancy (contractions) and blood clotting.
Anatomical Position Body erect, feet slightly apart, palms facing forward, thumbs point away from body Figure 1.7a
Anterior (ventral)* Toward or at the front of the body; in front of The breastbone is anterior to the spine Posterior (dorsal)* Toward or at the back of the body; behind The heart is posterior to the breastbone
Orientation and Directional Terms Superior vs. Inferior Superior: Towards the head – The shoulder is superior to the stomach Inferior: Away from head – The ankle is inferior to the knee.
*Whereas the terms ventral and anterior are synonymous in humans, this is not the case in four- legged animals. Ventral specifically refers to the "belly" of a vertebrate animal and thus is the inferior surface of four-legged animals. Likewise, although the dorsal and posterior surfaces are the same in humans, the term dorsal specifically refers to an animal's back. Thus, the dorsal surface of four-legged animals is their superior surface.
MedialToward or at the midline of the body; on the inner side of The heart is medial to the arm LateralAway from the midline of the body; on the outer side of The arms are lateral to the chest
IntermediateBetween a more medial and a more lateral structure The collarbone is intermediate between the breastbone and shoulder
ProximalCloser to the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk The elbow is proximal to the wrist DistalFarther from the origin of a body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk The knee is distal to the thigh Used For Appendages!!
Superficial (external) Toward or at the body surface The skin is superficial to the skeletal muscles Deep (internal) Away from the body surface; more internal The lungs are deep to the skin