Presentation on theme: "Amended Administrative Rules on Corporal Punishment, Restraint, and Physical Confinement and Detention Iowa Department of Education."— Presentation transcript:
Amended Administrative Rules on Corporal Punishment, Restraint, and Physical Confinement and Detention Iowa Department of Education
Amended Rules Rules on corporal punishment, restraint, and physical confinement and detention have changed Changes effective November 12, 2008 Rules add a training requirement
Training Requirement All school employees, before using physical restraint or physical confinement and detention, shall receive adequate and periodic training, which shall be documented… Iowa Admin. Code r ¶ 2
Training Subjects Chapter 103 and the employers policies and procedures Positive behavior interventions and supports Disciplinary options to seclusion & restraint Crisis prevention, crisis intervention, crisis de- escalation techniques Student and staff debriefing Safe, effective use of restraint and confinement and detention
Chapter 103s Purpose [103.1] Provide guidance to employees of AEAs, LEAs, and accredited nonpublic schools. Limits on physical contact with students Force used must be reasonable Provide guidance on physical restraint Provide guidance on use of time-out rooms – the function, not the name, determines the Chapters applicability
Ban on Corporal Punishment [103.2] Banned: An employee of a public school district, accredited nonpublic school, or [AEA] shall not inflict, or cause to be inflicted, corporal punishment on a student. Defined: The intentional physical punishment of a student, including the use of unreasonable or unnecessary physical force, or physical contact made with the intent to harm or cause pain.
What Corporal Punishment Is Not [103.3] Verbal recrimination or chastisement Reasonable requests in physical education or extracurricular athletics Actions consistent with an IEP, but an IEP cannot violate the IDEA Detentions in a seat for reasonable periods, unless (a) this counts as physical confinement and detention or (b) mechanical restraints are used Actions taken against nonstudents
Material Restraints [103.3] Material (mechanical) restraints may not be used to confine or restrain students. This term does not include safety, therapeutic, or medical devices, if used as designed and prescribed. If a device is used improperly, that use violates these rules.
Exceptions & Privileges [103.4] No employee is forbidden from... 1.Using reasonable and necessary force, not designed or intended to cause pain to accomplish … Quell a disturbance or stop an act that threatens harm Obtain a weapon or dangerous object from a student Self-defense or the defense of others Protection of property Remove a disruptive student from school, school property, or school activities Protect a student from self-inflicted harm Protect the safety of others
Exceptions & Privileges [103.4] No employee is forbidden from... 2.Using incidental, minor, or reasonable physical contact to maintain order and control. Remember … An employee may not use unreasonable force to do any of the items in rule 103.4
What is reasonable force? [103.5] Whether force is reasonable depends on the facts of each case, considering 5 factors: 1.Size, physical, mental, psychological condition of the student 2.Nature of behavior or misconduct 3.Instrumentality used to apply force 4.Extent of injury to student, if any 5.Employees motivation in using force
What is reasonable force? [103.5] Remember … Reasonable physical force, privileged at its inception, does not lose its privileged status by reasons of an injury to the student, not reasonably foreseeable or otherwise caused by intervening acts of another, including the student.
Physical Confinement & Detention [103.6] Defined: confinement of a student in a time-out room or some other enclosure, whether within or outside the classroom, from which the students egress is restricted Not included: time-out at a desk, in a corner, at the back of a class, in the hall, afterschool detention, typical in- school suspension arrangements
Physical Confinement & Detention [103.6] The room itself: Area of reasonable dimensions and free from hazards, considering the age, size, and physical and mental condition of the student Sufficient light and adequate ventilation Comfortable temperature, consistent with the facility including the enclosure
Physical Confinement & Detention [103.6] Time of confinement and detention Period of confinement and detention must be reasonable, considering childs age, condition Reasonable breaks for bodily needs (sleep does not count) If period exceeds 60 minutes or typical class period (whichever is shorter), staff must (a) obtain administrator (or designee) approval and (b) comply with directives and conditions on continued confinement and detention.
Physical Confinement & Detention [103.6] Additional requirements Adequate and continuous adult supervision is mandatory. Material restraints must not be used to maintain confinement and detention. If a locking mechanism is used, the mechanism must comply with all building and fire codes and either operate only when held in place by an adult (Staff shall not disable these mechanisms so they do not require an adult to hold in place.) or release when the buildings alarms sound open from the inside when lock is released
Additional Mandatory Minimum Procedures [103.7] The rules are mandatory, but an agency may adopt additional policies and procedures. Required procedures include: Use of restraint and confinement Training on restraint and confinement Parent notification Documentation
Definition of Physical Restraint The application of physical force by 1 or more individuals that reduces or restricts another individuals ability to move his or her arms, legs, or head freely. This does not include the temporary holding of an individual to assist with participation in activities of daily living (ADLs) without the risk of physical harm to an individual. Welfare League of America (2002)
Use of Seclusion and Restraint Shall not be used as discipline for minor infractions May only be used if other disciplinary techniques have been attempted, if reasonable Note: need not use alternatives if not reasonable Period of restraint shall be reasonable and necessary in duration
Restraint: Additional Provisions [103.8] No employee shall use prone restraint. Defined: held face down If used in an emergency, staff must take immediate steps to end the prone restraint. No employee shall use any restraint that obstructs a childs airway. If a child signs or uses an augmentative mode of communication, the child must be allowed to have hands free to communicate, unless harm appears likely to result. Remember, this rule does not alter any immunity from lawsuit granted by statute.
Notice to Parents [103.7] Notice to parents annually – of these rules – of any additional policy and procedure Attempt to notify parents on the day of an instance of restraint or confinement & detention Provide a written copy of documentation to parents – postmarked within three days of instance –parents may elect to receive documents by or fax
Documentation Required [103.7] Schools shall maintain documentation for each instance of restraint or confinement. Purposes of documentation requirement Accurate record of each instance Required notice to parents Use for decision making (student, classroom, building, district)
Documentation Contents Name of student involved Name of employees involved, including the administrator authorizing any additional period of confinement Date Time Duration
Documentation Contents Actions of student before, during, and after incident Actions of employees before, during, and after incident (including student and staff debriefing) Alternatives to restraint or confinement attempted (if any) A description of injuries (to student or others) and property damage A description of future approaches to students behavior (i.e., meet to revise IEP)
Additional Policies and Procedures Does your district, AEA, or accredited nonpublic school have additional policies or procedures? If so, you are required to follow them.
Disciplinary options to seclusion & restraint Why should schools care about options to seclusion and restraint? A range of options increase the effectiveness of responses to unacceptable behavior. Using seclusion or restraint when other options would work decreases the effectiveness of seclusion and restraint. By rule, seclusion and restraint shall not be used as discipline for minor infractions. Iowa Admin. Code r ¶ 1.
Disciplinary options to seclusion & restraint Options include … Redirection Offering choices Time-out at the students desk Time-out in a location in the classroom The options employed should match the function of the childs behavior (avoidance, attention, etc.) and should address both prevention and consequences.
Crisis Prevention, Crisis Intervention, Crisis De-escalation If a crisis is avoided, all benefit. What is a crisis? If safety is an issue, you are probably in a crisis. A calm approach to a crisis with an opportunity for a student to take an alternative action is the foundation for avoiding, resolving, or terminating a crisis.
Crisis Prevention, Crisis Intervention, Crisis De-escalation Maintain a calm voice and demeanor. Provide clear guidelines for the child. If the child has a behavior plan, follow it. Provide a more attractive alternative option for the child to choose. Above all, remember your safety, the childs safety, and the safety of others.
De-escalation techniques Examples include: Talking in a calm voice Adults moving in slow movements providing minimal startles to individual Offering choices Providing clear guidelines Removing stressors Providing calming items or activities
Behavior Intervention Plan vs. Crisis If child has a Behavior Intervention Plan for this situation, follow the plan. The plan should be matched to the function of behavior and would be the appropriate response to an expected crisis condition. If the child does not have a Behavior Intervention Plan for this situation it is most likely because it is a new situation, a student who is not prone to this type of situation, or the adults available are unaware. FOLLOW DE-ESCALATION PROCEDURES
Student and Staff Debriefing Debrief is defined by the American Heritage Dictionary (4th ed. 2000) as follows: To question to obtain knowledge or intelligence gathered especially on a military mission. The rules use this word in its broadest possible meaning. Purpose: to gather useful information
Student and Staff Debriefing Some information that might be useful What happened? Do you understand why it happened? Why did you do what you did? What could you have done instead? What could you do if there is a next time? How can we help you if there is a next time? How can we help you so there will not be a next time?
Safe and Effective Use of Seclusion & Restraint Remember, safety first. Your safety The safety of the student and others Certain things to remember –The students condition (age, physical condition, presence of weapon) –Control of the student (immobilization of the student, but only to the extent necessary) –Protection of the student (avoid actions that threaten the students health or safety)
Safe and Effective Use of Seclusion & Restraint Effective use What are the purposes of seclusion and restraint? Does the use of seclusion and restraint in a particular case advance one of those purposes? Is seclusion and restraint used only when necessary?
For More Information … Feel free to contact oyour districts director of special education oyour AEA othe Iowa Department of Education
Prevention is Key PBIS is a broad range of systemic and individualized strategies for achieving important social and learning outcomes while preventing problem behavior. *Contributed by OSEP Center on PBIS
What does the research say about PBIS? PBIS has been shown to increase preferred behaviors, increase student time spent in instruction, decrease office referrals, and decrease suspensions. Lohrmann et al. (2008) …… reliance on exclusionary and punishment-centered disciplinary practices without pro-active supports has been shown to increase problem behavior. Mayer (1995) Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (PBIS)
school and classroom-wide systems for all students, staff, and settings specialized group systems for at-risk students individualized systems for high-risk students 80% of Students 15% 5% CONTINUUM OF SCHOOL-WIDE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT Tertiary Prevention Secondary Prevention Primary Prevention
Teaching Matrix SETTING All SettingsHallwaysPlaygroundsCafeteria Library/ Computer Lab AssemblyBus Respect Ourselves Be on task. Give your best effort. Be prepared. Walk.Have a plan. Eat all your food. Select healthy foods. Study, read, compute. Sit in one spot. Watch for your stop. Respect Others Be kind. Hands/feet to self. Help/share with others. Use normal voice volume. Walk to right. Play safe. Include others. Share equipment. Practice good table manners Whisper. Return books. Listen/watch. Use appropriate applause. Use a quiet voice. Stay in your seat. Respect Property Recycle. Clean up after self. Pick up litter. Maintain physical space. Use equipment properly. Put litter in garbage can. Replace trays & utensils. Clean up eating area.3 Push in chairs. Treat books carefully. Pick up. Treat chairs appropriately. Wipe your feet. Sit appropriately. 1. SOCIAL SKILL 3.BEHAVIOR EXAMPLES 2. NATURAL CONTEXT
Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (PBIS) Positive relationships and positive interactions increase the likelihood of appropriate (positive) student responses. Teaching positively stated expectations (do…), not negative (do not) Defining clear, equitable, predictable consequences for meeting expectations Defining clear, equitable, predictable consequences for not meeting expectations Focus on teaching acceptable replacement behaviors
Examples of Data Decision Making Office Discipline Referrals How many does it take before further action? What is the action? Attendance Assignments Grades How many does it take before further action? What is the action?
Using Data School-Wide –Whats happening? –Are we meeting our goals? –Are we doing what we said we would? Individual Students –Whats happening? –What do we do next? –Are we doing what we said we would?
Assessment of systems Continuum of Assessment and Support Universal interventions Specialized group interventions Specialized individual intervention Specialized individual intervention Functional analysis Functional Behavioral assessment Simple functional assessment ( Crone, Horner 2003) % 3 – 7% 5 – 15% %
Supplemental Supports For those students who exhibit difficulties despite proactive school-wide prevention efforts Likely to be students with both academic & behavioral challenges Approximately 10% of school population
The Problem-solving Process 1. Define the problem. What is the problem and why is it happening? 4. Evaluate. Did our plan work? 2. Develop a plan. What are we going to do? 3.Implement the plan. Carry out the intervention.
Conduct Brief Functional Assessment Is the behavior maintained by escape from social interaction? Is the behavior related to lack of academic skills? Is the behavior maintained by peer attention? Escape Motivated BEP Reduce adult interaction Use escape as a reinforcer BEP + Academic Support Increase academic support Peer Motivated BEP Allow student to earn reinforcers to share with peers Horner, Hawken, Marsh
Requirements for Supplemental Interventions Targeted, individualized or small group interventions based on functional behavioral assessment information social skills instruction behavioral programming Multiple opportunities for high rates of academic success Daily behavioral monitoring -Self and/or adult Regular, frequent opportunities for positive reinforcement Home-school connection
Critical Features of Supplemental Interventions Intervention is continuously available Rapid access to intervention (less than a week) Very low effort by teachers Positive system of support Implemented by all staff/faculty in a school Flexible intervention based on assessment (FBA) Consistent with school- wide expectations Adequate resources (admin, team) Weekly meetings Student chooses to participate Continuous monitoring for decision-making
Remember… Without school-wide prevention, we cannot reliably identify targeted-level students.
The research says to …. Create systems-based preventive continuum of behavior support Focus on adult behavior Utilize data based decisions Give priority to academic success Invest in evidence-based practices Teach & acknowledge behavioral expectations Work from a person-centered, function-based approach
DE Contacts Challenging Behaviors Barb Rankin(515) Positive Behavior Supports (PBIS) Susan Bruce (515)
Thanks! Again, thank you for your work on behalf of Iowas children and families! Please feel free to contact the Iowa Department of Education or your trainer if you require further information: