2 But now, for something completely different . . . . Anglo-Dutch warfare in the late 1600sFought for mercantile advantageDutch hated British “Navigation Acts”Most significant outcome of these wars was the Dutch’s loss of the port city of New Amsterdam to Brits.Renamed New York
3 First, the big picture The Big Picture: Colonies had, by the 17th century, been incorporated into the economies of Western European countries. Mercantilism had come to mean the domination of trade.Thus colonialism and the overseas trade became inextricably bound up with issues of continental power and advantage that had been characteristic of the dynastic-state system since its beginning.
4 “Second Hundred Years’ War” The Big Pic:Between 1689 and series of wars fought on an increasingly global scale to determine power relations on the continent. Wars are known collectively as the Second Hundred Years' War.No one of these wars was a duel between France and England, but in each of them one or more of the other European powers were engaged.
5 The Big Picture: War objectives England considered the objective of these wars to be thedefense of Protestantism and English liberties throughthe containment of French continental ambitions, the balance of power, and global trade dominance.For you juniors and seniors: do these objectives sound familiar? Do they harken back to the 2nd half of the 20th c?
6 France’s war objectives France's objectives werealso global trade dominance,continental powerto expand its borders into the Low Countries and along the Rhine.
7 Early Colonialism and Empires Superior technology, not culture is key to Europe’s powerSpain, France and Great Britain dominate the mercantile trade of the 18th c.Colonial struggles are linked to balance of power on continent: England and France
8 Second Hundred Year’s War 1687-1815 Causes: balance of power; commercial and colonial competitionNine Year’s War (League of Augsburg) (parallel colonial war in N. America between France and England (King William’s War)Ends when belligerents become exhausted/stalemateTreaty (Peace) of Ryswick 1697—thwarts France’s attempted expansion into Germany
9 More of the Wars War of the Spanish Succession Hapsburg and Bourbon houses claim throne of Spain. England sides w/Austrian HapsburgsFrance exhausted, sues for peacein the American colonies (Queen Anne's War)Treaty of UtrechtThere followed thirty years of "peaceThese 18th c. wars are fought largely “by professional armies and navies, civilian populations were rarely drawn deeply into the conflicts” .
10 Back at it . . . BEST. WAR NAME. EVER! War of Jenkins’s Ear 1739Anglo-Spanish WarWhere: West IndiesWhat: Treaty of Utrecht in 1713 lead to conflict btwn Spanish and British colonial interests. Brits tried to smuggle more goods into SP. trading posts than allowed.Who Won? UnclearResult: opened up warfare on continent and in colonies
11 War of the Austrian Succession (1744-1748) Austrian Charles VI dies (1740) Pragmatic Sanction—ensures heir takes throneMaria Theresa take throneFrederick II seized Austrian province of SilesiaPrussia, France, Spain and Bavaria v. Austria, Great Britain and NetherlandsEngland drawn in to preserve balance of power between Austria and France.Of course, there was an attendant colonial war too: France v. GB. In N. America and India too.Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle: not really a peace, but a truce
12 The Diplomatic Revolution (1756) Uneasy peaceSimultaneous shift in alliances: Prussian now an ally of Great Britain. Defensive positionBefore Gr. Brit and Austria were alliesThis development makes possible an alliance between France and Austria
13 Damn Prussians: The Seven Year’s War [or the First World War (?)] Has both continental and colonial conflicts (from )Frederick the Great invades Saxony (Austrian ally). Maria Therese of Austria would love Silesia back too.Frederick the Great (II) with British financial aid versus Austria, France, Sweden, and RussiaRussia signs peace w/ Fred. One less enemyPeace of Hubertusburg: Nothing really changes. Silesia still Prussian. Prussia a GREAT POWER!
14 Meanwhile in the colonies… William Pitt the Elder: fight the war in the colonies, not on the continentPitt's goal in North America: take out the French in St. Lawrence and Mississippi ValleyOrchestrates, as Sec of State the dominance of GBN. America and IndiaTreaty of Paris (1763): Great Britain a world power; GB acquires French Canada and land btw Appalachian Mtns and the Mississippi River. Spain still in Latin America; Fr. gives Spain New Orleans and LA territory West of Ms. R.
15 Results of the Seven Years’ War England and France left heavily in debt, attempts to get out of debt lead to two revolutionsFrance needs top to bottom restructuring: That top part’s gonna be painfulEngland: Gotta get the money from somewhere. But where? Hmmm….colonies? All that new land means new frontier which needs protecting, too, which costs money. No more salutary neglect.
16 American Revolution American Revolution (1775-1783) French and Dutch back colonists to lessen British powerBritish in heavy debt from previous wars
17 Still to comeFrench Revolution ( ): French farther in debt from American RevolutionNapoleonic Wars ( )