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**Preparing a Molar Solution**

How many grams of sucrose (C12H22O11) is needed to prepare one liter of a 1.50 M solution? You’ll need the molar mass of sucrose: 1.5 mol g _____________ X ___________ = 513 g / liter 1 liter mol

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**Preparing a Molar Solution**

How many grams of sucrose (C12H22O11) is needed to prepare 100 mL of a 1.50 M solution? 1.5 mol g _____________ X ___________ = 513 g / liter 1 liter mol 1 L g 100 mL X __________ X _____________ = 51.3 g 1000 mL L

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Diluting Solutions Many solutions (acids) come in a concentrated liquid form called a stock solution To dilute this solution, you add more solvent (usually water or alcohol) The amount of solute does not change, so the amount of solution SO M1V1 = M2V2

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Diluting Solutions What volume in milliliters of 2.00M calcium chloride (CaCl2) would you use to make .50 L of .300 M calcium chloride solution? .50 L X 1000 mL/1 L = 500 mL M1V1 = M2V2 2.00M x V1 = .300M x 500 mL V1 = .300M x 500 mL / 2.00M V1 = 75 mL

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**Mole Fraction Another way to express concentration**

Need to know the number of moles of solute and solvent Abbreviated as X Xa = mole fraction of solvent = na / na + nb Xb = mole fraction of solute = nb / na + nb

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Mole Fractions What is the mole fraction of water in an HCl solution containing 62.5% water and 37.5% HCl by mass? 62.5 g x 1mol / g = 3.47 mol H2O 37.5 g x 1mol / g = 1.03 mol HCl na / na + nb 3.47 mol H20 / 1.03 mol HCl mol H20 na = .771

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