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Sending Signals Notes. Structure of Single Neuron.

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Presentation on theme: "Sending Signals Notes. Structure of Single Neuron."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sending Signals Notes

2 Structure of Single Neuron

3 Neurons nparts.swf

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7 3 types of Neurons Sensory Neurons – neurons that carry incoming information from the sense to the CNS Interneurons – CNS neurons that internally communicate and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs Motor Neurons – Carry outgoing information from the CNS to muscle and glands

8 Sensor Receptor Sensory Input Integration Effector Motor Output Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) Central Nervous System(CNS)

9 Neuron Signals ACTION POTENTIAL

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11 When an impulse reaches the Axon Terminal, dozen of vesicles fuse with the cell membrane and discharge the Neurotransmitter into the Synaptic Cleft (GAP). The molecules of the neurotransmitter diffuse across the gap and attach themselves to SPECIAL RECEPTORS on the membrane of the neuron receiving the impulse. When the neurotransmitter becomes attached to the cell membrane of the adjacent nerve cell, it changes the permeability of that membrane. As a result, Na+ ions diffuse through the membrane into the cell. If enough neurotransmitter is released by the axon terminal, so many Na+ ions diffuse into the neuron that the neuron becomes DEPOLARIZED.

12 DEPOLARIZED = Inside the membrane becomes more positive than outside. This causes a THRESHOLD to be REACHED and an impulse (ACTION POTENTIAL) begins in the second cell. After the neurotransmitter relays it message it is rapidly REMOVED or DESTROYED, thus halting its effect. The molecules of the neurotransmitter may be broken down by ENZYMES, taken up again by the axon terminal and recycled, or they may simply diffuse away. NERVE GAS prevents enzymes from breaking down neurotransmitters, as a result muscles in the respiratory and nervous system becomes paralyzed.

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16 The point of contact at which impulses are passed from one cell to another are known as THE SYNAPTIC CLEFT OR SYNAPSE. Neurons that transmit impulses to other neurons DO NOT actually touch one another. The Small Gap or Space between the axon of one neuron and the dendrites of the next neuron is called the Synapse. One importance of the presence of Synapses is that they ensures one-way transmission of impulses in a living person. The Axon Terminals at a Synapse contain tiny vesicles, or sacs. These are known as NEUROTRANSMITTERS.

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18 NEUROTRANSMITTER is a chemical substance that is used by one neuron to signal another. The impulse is changed from an Electrical Impulse to a Chemical Impulse (Electrochemical Impulses).

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20 Other facts… After the neurotransmitter relays it message it is rapidly REMOVED or DESTROYED, thus halting its effect. Neurotransmitters may be broken down by ENZYMES, taken up again by the axon terminal and recycled, or they may simply diffuse away. NERVE GAS prevents enzymes from breaking down neurotransmitters, as a result muscles in the respiratory and nervous system becomes paralyzed.

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