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Arrangements of Argument

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1 Arrangements of Argument
Presented by E. Wanczuk; adapted from Carbone, Paula M. AP Institute. California State University, San Marcos. CSUSM, San Marcos, CA. July Lecture. English Journal 99:6 (2010) AP Workshop Materials

2 ARRANGEMENT The general format of the argument.
Three major arrangements: Classical Rogerian Toulmin

3 How Do I Select an Arrangement?
“Those [arguments] that are the least weighty or that closely resemble others that are weightier are to be discarded and left out of the discourse: in my case when I am collecting arguments for my cases I make it my practice not to much to count them as to weigh them.” Cicero

4 How Do I Select an Arrangement?
Should I follow the rules of the arrangement, or should I attend to the rhetorical situation? Ask yourself these questions: What are the parts of the argument? How should my argument (these parts) be arranged? What factors determine the arrangement? The arrangement, or conventions for organization is only as good as its effectiveness in achieving the text’s purpose for an intended audience.

5 IMPORTANT NOTE The sections of each arrangement DO NOT correspond to the number of paragraphs. In other words, each section of the arrangement may not be one paragraph, but several paragraphs or part of a paragraph.

6 Classical Arrangement
Exordium (introduction): capture audience’s attention, short anecdote, strong example, establish ethos, background information that prepares reader Narratio (statement of the case): state your stance as a thesis statement/claim; state the facts of the case, background/history of the situation

7 Classical Arrangement
Divisio (lay out the argument): which issues will be discussed and why; why issues will be left out Confirmatio and Refutio (confirmation and refutation): proofs, any opposing cases, and why they are not persuasive; may make concessions that do not hurt own argument Peroration (conclusion): confirm/enhance ethos; the big, take-away idea.

8 Classical Arrangement for AP
Introduction: intro issue, capture audience’s attention Background Information: provide history of situation, and state how situation currently stands. Even if the facts speak for themselves, draw attention to those points that are especially important and explain why those points that are especially important, explain why. Proposition: position/claim; thesis

9 Classical Arrangement for AP
Proofs: Reasons why you have taken your position. Use logos, pathos (facts, testimony, other evidence). Refutation: show why arguments of others are not persuasive. Concede any point that has merit but does not hurt your case. Conclusion: Summarize the most important points and appeal to audience’s feelings.

10 Rogerian Arrangement Introduction: acknowledge views different from your own; build trust by stating these views clearly and fairly Concessions: reassure audience that you will persuade by showing you agree with readers who are opposed and do not think they are completely wrong; common ground Thesis: now you have earned trust/confidence of audience, now state claim or proposition

11 Rogerian Arrangement Support: explain why you take your position, and provide support Conclusion: show how audience can benefit from accepting your position; show the extent to which your position will solve the problem

12 Stephen Toulmin The Uses of Argument (1958)
The problem with formal logic (syllogism) is that it fails to account for the process of practical, informal reasoning that characterizes most real-world arguments (Warren). In practical arguments (unlike syllogisms), we begin with our primary assertion (the claim). The claim corresponds logically to the conclusion of a syllogism. If the audience accepts our claim without question, that is far as we need to go. Warren, James. “Taming the Warrant in Toulmin’s Model of Argument.” English Journal 99:6 (2010): Print.

13 Toulmin But if the audience asks, “What have you got to go on?”, then we respond with data (the minor premise of a syllogism). If the audience is satisfied with our reasoning, then we don’t need to address the assumption that justifies our leap from data to claim. But if the audience asks, “How do you get there?”, or asks us for our justifying assumption, then we must provide warrants, which are general, hypothetical statements (major premise in a syllogism). The warrant acts as a bridge, a license, a guarantee that validates our step from data to claim. Warren, James. “Taming the Warrant in Toulmin’s Model of Argument.” English Journal 99:6 (2010): Print.

14 Toulmin MODEL You read/see/learn EVIDENCE/DATA so you can CLAIM…[however, when you WRITE an argument in the Toulmin arrangement, you usually start with the claim, and then move on to the data]; depending upon strength of claim, one may need to use a QUALIFIER (usually, probably) The WARRANTS [implicit] explain how the data supports the claim REBUTTAL or RESERVATION: who’ll disagree with my argument? Why? Why is The BACKING claim stronger? supports the warrants

15 Very Simple Toulmin Model
Toulmin’s Sentence formula: DATA, so (QUALIFIER) CLAIM, since WARRANT, on account of BACKING, unless (RESERVATION). Rottenberg/Bell formula: Because (DATA), therefore or so (QUALIFIER?) (CLAIM), since (WARRANT), because (BACKING), unless (RESERVATION). Because _____, therefore _____, since _____, because _____ (unless) _____. Because it is raining, I should probably take my umbrella, since it will keep me dry because the material is waterproof, unless there is a hole in it. (AWKWARD!) Scanlon, Lawrence. “Using the Toulmin Model of Argument in the Classroom.” AP English Language and Composition Workshop Materials Print.

16 Toulmin Model Conversation
Arend: I should have your permission to stay out after curfew at the skateboard park. Mom: Why do you think you should have my permission? Arend: All of my friends are doing it. Mom: So what? How does your friends’ behavior warrant your staying at the park? Arend: Adolescents feel a strong need to define their identity by joining with friends in shared experiences. Mom: How do you know that to be true? Arend: A recent survey of 582 child psychologists revealed that 87% of the respondents recognized that children who are excluded from joining with peer-sponsored group activities felt isolated and lonely. McCann, Thomas M. “Gateways to Writing Logical Arguments” English Journal 99:6 (2010): Print.

17 Toulmin Model The argument justifies a claim (claim = thesis). Arend’s claim: Mom should let him stay out past curfew at the skateboard park. Arend’s datum: All of his friends are doing it. Arend’s warrant, or general rule, to support claim: adolescents’ need to define identity and share experiences with friends. Arend’s backing, or further support, to validate the rule: The recent survey from child psychologists. McCann, Thomas M. “Gateways to Writing Logical Arguments” English Journal 99:6 (2010): Print.

18 A Closer Look at the Warrant
A general, unstated proposition that moves argument from claim to data. Remain implicit in an argument; they are the unspoken assumptions that bind together claims and data. They are brought to the surface by logical inferences. There are multiple ways of phrasing the same warrant. Every argument relies on a host of cultural assumptions that go beyond the warrant—be aware of these assumptions! Warren, James. “Taming the Warrant in Toulmin’s Model of Argument.” English Journal 99:6 (2010): Print.

19 How Do I Identify a Warrant?
According to Toulmin, warrants “may normally be written very briefly (in the form ‘if D [data], then C [claim]’)” Or more explicitly: “Data such as D entitle one to draw conclusions, to make claims, such as C.” In other words, insert the data and claim into an “if…then” statement. HOWEVER, if your statement is inelegantly phrased (awkward), then please REVISE for clarity and concision. Double check your warrant for validity by converting the claim, data, and warrant into a syllogism. Warren, James. “Taming the Warrant in Toulmin’s Model of Argument.” English Journal 99:6 (2010): Print.

20 Toulmin: Bottom Line Claims should be stated clearly and qualified carefully. Claims should be supported with evidence and good reasons. Claims and reasons should be based on assumptions readers will likely accept. Effective arguments respectfully anticipate objections readers might offer.

21 Toulmin Limitations Have to break larger argument into smaller units
The warrant + data give authority to claim, but on a simplistic level Doesn’t evaluate

22 When… Should you use the classical arrangement?
Should you use the Rogerian arrangement? Should you use the Toulmin model? Should you combine arrangements? Should you use none of the above?

23 Homework Select an article of contemporary social criticism from a credible source about an issue of importance in our community, state, country, world, universe. As you read, take notes on the subject, occasion, audience, purpose, and speaker. Write down the author’s claim. Next class: We will use your homework to practice the Toulmin arrangement.

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