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DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid The Blueprint of Life I. DNA Structure & Function.

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Presentation on theme: "DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid The Blueprint of Life I. DNA Structure & Function."— Presentation transcript:


2 DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid The Blueprint of Life I. DNA Structure & Function

3 A. What is DNA? 1. Organic molecule 2. Nucleic acid

4 B.Where is it located ? 1. Nucleus 2. Chromosomes DNA

5 Chromosomes in Nucleus

6 C. Structure of DNA 1. Nucleotides a. Phosphoric Acid b. Deoxyribose sugar c. Nitrogenous bases: Adenine-Thymine Guanine-Cytosine 2. Ladder Shape 3. Double strand, helix twist

7 Ladder Shape (Sides & Rungs) Sides: Phosphoric Acid Sugar Phosphoric Acid Rungs: A-T T-A G-C C-G Sugar Acid Sugar Acid Sugar T-A G-C C-G A-T

8 Watson & Cricks Double helix:

9 D. What is DNAs Function ? Hereditary Instructions Chemical code for every trait Blueprint for making Proteins

10 Chromosome DNA Code: Genes = Segments of DNA Code for a trait Hair Color Eye Color

11 DNA Chromosome Code: Triplets= Sets of 3 Nucleotides Code for Trait Acid Sugar-T-A-Sugar Acid Sugar-G-C-Sugar Acid Sugar-C-G-Sugar

12 DNA Chromosome Code: Like Morse Code: Hair = *** *- ** *-* Or DNA A-T A-T G-C C-G T-A C-G

13 DNA Replication Chromosomes double Mitosis Late Interphase 2n to 4n 2N

14 E. Steps for DNA Replication: 1. DNA untwists 2. DNA unzips 3. Corresponding base pairs Line up In sets of 3 nucleotides (triplets) Or codons 4. DNA reforms 5. 2 strands twist into helix Identical Strand

15 RNA Ribonucleic Acid DNA messenger & taxi II. RNA Structure & Function

16 A. What is RNA? 1. Organic Molecule 2. Nucleic Acid 3. mRNA= messenger tRNA= transfer

17 B. Where is RNA located? 1. mRNA in nucleus & cytoplasm 2. tRNA only in cytoplasm mRNA tRNA

18 B. What is RNAs structure? Acid Sugar-Base Acid Sugar-Base Acid Sugar-Base Acid Sugar-Base 1. Nucleotides= a. Phosphoric Acid b. Ribose sugar c. Nitrogenous Bases: Adenine-Uracil Guanine-Cytocine 2. Single Strand 3. No Twisted helix

19 Comparison of RNA & DNA: Acid Sugar-Base Acid Sugar-Base Acid Sugar-Base Acid Sugar-Base Acid Sugar-Base-Sugar Acid Sugar-Base-Sugar Acid Sugar-Base-Sugar Acid RNA DNA Ladder Deoxy- ribose Ribose Uracil Thymine

20 D. What are RNAs functions: 1. mRNA= Copies the DNA code Deliveries message to Ribosome Protein Factories

21 Why not send the original DNA code out? DNA might be damaged! mRNA components are reused To copy more messages Original DNA mRNA copy

22 RNA function cont. 2. tRNA: in cytoplasm Picks up an amino acid Taxis the aa to the Ribosome protein factories tRNA Amino acid

23 III. Protein Synthesis Assembling Proteins from the DNA Instructions

24 A. Transcription : 1. mRNA is copied off of DNA 2. In nucleus 3. Steps: DNA untwists DNA unzips RNA codons line up

25 Transcription: mRNA has: Ribose sugar Uracil instead of thymine bases Nuclear membrane allows it to leave! DNA Code mRNA ATCGATCG UAGCUAGC

26 Transcription in The nucleus mRNA copy DNA

27 B. Translation = Conversion of the message (mRNA Code) Into a protein By the ribosome factories

28 B.Translation 1. mRNA arrives at the Ribosome 2. tRNA picks up an amino acid 3. tRNA delivers the aa to the ribosome 4. aa are assembled into polypeptide proteins U A G C G C U A mRNA code tRNA taxi

29 tRNA delivers amino acid 2. Peptide bond forms 3. tRNA leaves ribosome 4. Polypeptide Chain of amino acids grows

30 Summary: DNA Replication: Make duplicate DNA In nucleus Copy the chromosomes For Mitosis Protein Synthesis: 1. Transcrition: Make mRNA From DNA 2. Translation: Make protein Off mRNA code Using amino acids

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