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Presentation on theme: "GENETICS."— Presentation transcript:


2 What are proteins made of? Amino Acids
Where are proteins made? Ribosome Where are chromosomes located? Nucleus What is the function of Chromosomes? Controls heredity

3 Nucleic Acids and Protein Synthesis
Proteins- make up our cells (transplants fail – immune systems attack) Protein synthesis – make proteins Chromosomes – contain information for how to put proteins together 1. protein & nucleic acid (DNA) Nucleic Acid: 1. 5 carbon sugar 2. phosphate group 3. nitrogen containing base

4 A. DNA – deoxyribo nucleic acid
shape – double helix-twisted ladder a. Sugar + phosphates alternate make up sides b. Base – rungs of ladder Double Helix discovered by Watson and Crick

5 Nucleotide = sugar + phosphate + base
Building Blocks – nucleotide (sugar, phosphate & base)

6 Four different bases 1. Purines – double ring structure adenine, guanine 2. Pyrimidines – single ring structure thymine , cytosine Bonding patter for bases: A – T C - G

7 Replication – when DNA makes an exact copy of itself Must occur every time the cell divides
Why? To ensure cells have a compelte set of DNA Protein synthesis – controls making protein in nucleus - ribosome – site of protein synthesis - DNA has code (instructions) for how to make protein in the nucleus _ RNA – ribonucleic acid

8 Protein Synthesis RNA Sugar – ribose Shape – single helix Base: uracil
adeninine cytosine guanine A-U C- G DNA Deoxyribose Double helix Base: thymine adenine cytosine guanine A-T C-G

9 Three types of RNA mRNA – messenger RNA carry the message code where proteins are made (genetic info.) Transcription: - tRNA – transfer RNA carries amino acids in the cytoplasm to the ribosome (translation) - rRNA – ribosomal RNA helps put together the amino acids to form a protein


11 II. What is RNA and how is it different from DNA?
Two big differences between DNA and RNA: 1. The sugar in DNA is deoxyribose; in RNA it is ribose 2. The nitrogenous base uracil (U) is used in RNA in place of T (they are very similar bases; in RNA U= A just like T = A.)

12 tRNA – anti- codon Protein Synthesis Transcription – process of transferring the information from DNA to mRNA Translation – process of amino acids bonding together to form

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