2 Objective for TodayEvaluate the theories of how the earliest Americans migrated from Asia to the New World.
3 Theories of how people got to America Land Bridge TheoryCoastal Route TheoryPacific Crossing TheoryAtlantic Crossing Theory
4 Land Bridge Theory Approximately 100,000 years ago Earth began to cool gradually - glaciationPeriods of glaciation – Ice AgesWater froze into sheets of glaciersOcean level dropped 300 feet & showed the floor of the Bering SeaConnected Asia with Alaska – Beringia
5 Beringia1,000 miles wide15,000 years ago – People from Asia came following food.Nomads & huntersContinued till the ice melted
6 Coastal Route Theory Crossed from NE Asia in boats Skirting the shore Land occasionally to huntWould have reached South America quicker than any land route
7 Pacific Crossing Theory Migrants from SE Asia went south to Australia & across the Pacific Ocean, hopping from island to island until they reached South America.
8 Atlantic Crossing Theory From Southwest Europe (southern France & Spain)Hugging the edge of the glaciers of the North AtlanticSailed from Iceland & Greenland down to North America
9 Using the small map on page 19, outline the four routes on your own map.
10 Day 1 REVIEW ACTIVITYWhich theory do you think was the best route & why?Must write one paragraph explaining your answer.
11 Objective for TodayIdentify & describe the causes of exploration.
12 Causes of ExplorationCrusadesRenaissance & Protestant ReformationNew Technology
13 The Crusades – Holy Wars Purpose:Christians wanted to get the Holy Land back from the MuslimsEssential DetailsWestern Europeans discover Asian food, spices, & clothing.Want to trade between Europe & AsiaTrading was slow & expensive over landWent looking for a sea route – explorers like ColumbusColumbus discovers America while trying to find a way to IndiaSo what? What is important to understand about this?
14 RenaissanceTime of great cultural developments & societal changes in Europe.People began to read the Bible & other early church writing with a critical eye.Wanted to reform the church & get rid of any religious practice not in the Bible.
15 Protestant Reformation Began with Martin LutherMovement to reform the Catholic ChurchChurch leaders were not happyLeaders of the reform movement broke away from the Catholic Church & formed their own churchesMany went to the New World so they could worship freely.
16 So what is the relationship between the Renaissance & Reformation?
17 New Technology Astrolabe Invented by the ancient Greeks & made better by Arab navigators.Used the position of the sun to determine directions, latitude & local time.
18 New Technology Compass Invented in China Reliably showed the direction of magnetic north.
19 New Technology Caravel Portuguese ship Small ship able to carry 130 tons of cargo.Needed little water to sail.Allowed explorers to go in shallow water & beach ships to make repairs.
20 Portuguese Exploration 1419 – Prince Henry (Henry the Navigator)Set up a center for research & invited explorers to come & map out voyages there.1420 – began mapping Africa’s west coast
21 Portuguese Exploration 1488 – Bartholomew Dias reached the tip of Africa1497 – Vasco da GamaRounded Africa’s tip heading to IndiaLanded on India’s Southwest coast1st water route to Asia found!
23 Review Activity: Causes of Exploration Foldable Fold your paper like a hotdog. Make two slits, creating 3 different sections.Create a foldable with the outside headings listed below.CrusadesRenaissance & ReformationNew Technology
24 Causes of Exploration Foldable Inside:Include a one paragraph summary explaining how this event or thing (Crusades, Renaissance & Reformation, & New Technology) caused exploration.A paragraph is considered 4-5 complete sentences.Include a picture to illustrate the event or thing.
25 Preview Activity Answer these questions if you can: Who was the first explorer (s) to find the Americas?Who was America named after?
26 ObjectivesIdentify the first major explorers of the Americas & the significance of their exploration.Judge the success of Columbus’ journey & its impact on the New World inhabitants.
27 Vikings Around 1000 A.D. they explored the coast of Labrador They tried to set up a life there but it didn’t work cause they were outnumbered by hostile Native Americans.
28 Christopher ColumbusItalian explorer that was paid by the Spanish (King Ferdinand & Queen Isabella) to find a water route to Asia.In 1492, he landed in the Caribbean.Explored the areas of present-day Cuba & Hispaniola.
30 Amerigo Vespucci Repeated Columbus’ trip to sail west. He realized that what Columbus found wasn’t Asia.America was named after him.
31 Other explorers Ponce de Leon – discovered Florida Balboa – 1st European to reach the Pacific coast of America.Magellan – Named the Pacific Ocean. His crew was the first to circumnavigate the globe (go all the way around the world).
32 Columbian ExchangeExchange between Columbus (or Europeans) and the Native Americans.
33 What did the “Indians” get What did the Europeansget fromthe “Indians”?What did the “Indians” getfrom theEuropeans?