Presentation on theme: "Chapter 1 Exploration. Objective for Today Evaluate the theories of how the earliest Americans migrated from Asia to the New World."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 1 Exploration
Objective for Today Evaluate the theories of how the earliest Americans migrated from Asia to the New World.
Theories of how people got to America Land Bridge Theory Coastal Route Theory Pacific Crossing Theory Atlantic Crossing Theory
Land Bridge Theory Approximately 100,000 years ago Earth began to cool gradually - glaciation Periods of glaciation – Ice Ages –Water froze into sheets of glaciers –Ocean level dropped 300 feet & showed the floor of the Bering Sea Connected Asia with Alaska – Beringia
Beringia 1,000 miles wide 15,000 years ago – People from Asia came following food. –Nomads & hunters Continued till the ice melted
Coastal Route Theory –Crossed from NE Asia in boats –Skirting the shore –Land occasionally to hunt –Would have reached South America quicker than any land route
Pacific Crossing Theory Migrants from SE Asia went south to Australia & across the Pacific Ocean, hopping from island to island until they reached South America.
Atlantic Crossing Theory –From Southwest Europe (southern France & Spain) –Hugging the edge of the glaciers of the North Atlantic –Sailed from Iceland & Greenland down to North America
Using the small map on page 19, outline the four routes on your own map.
Day 1 REVIEW ACTIVITY Which theory do you think was the best route & why? Must write one paragraph explaining your answer.
Objective for Today Identify & describe the causes of exploration.
Causes of Exploration Crusades Renaissance & Protestant Reformation New Technology
The Crusades – Holy Wars So what? What is important to understand about this? Essential Details Want to trade between Europe & Asia Trading was slow & expensive over land Went looking for a sea route – explorers like Columbus Columbus discovers America while trying to find a way to India Western Europeans discover Asian food, spices, & clothing. Christians wanted to get the Holy Land back from the Muslims Purpose:
Renaissance Time of great cultural developments & societal changes in Europe. People began to read the Bible & other early church writing with a critical eye. Wanted to reform the church & get rid of any religious practice not in the Bible.
Protestant Reformation Began with Martin Luther Movement to reform the Catholic Church Church leaders were not happy Leaders of the reform movement broke away from the Catholic Church & formed their own churches Many went to the New World so they could worship freely.
So what is the relationship between the Renaissance & Reformation?
New Technology Astrolabe –Invented by the ancient Greeks & made better by Arab navigators. –Used the position of the sun to determine directions, latitude & local time.
New Technology Compass –Invented in China –Reliably showed the direction of magnetic north.
New Technology Caravel –Portuguese ship –Small ship able to carry 130 tons of cargo. –Needed little water to sail. –Allowed explorers to go in shallow water & beach ships to make repairs.
Portuguese Exploration 1419 – Prince Henry (Henry the Navigator) –Set up a center for research & invited explorers to come & map out voyages there – began mapping Africas west coast
Portuguese Exploration 1488 – Bartholomew Dias reached the tip of Africa 1497 – Vasco da Gama –Rounded Africas tip heading to India –Landed on Indias Southwest coast –1 st water route to Asia found!
Review Activity: Causes of Exploration Foldable Fold your paper like a hotdog. Make two slits, creating 3 different sections. Create a foldable with the outside headings listed below. CrusadesRenaissance & ReformationNew Technology
Causes of Exploration Foldable Inside: –Include a one paragraph summary explaining how this event or thing (Crusades, Renaissance & Reformation, & New Technology) caused exploration. A paragraph is considered 4-5 complete sentences. –Include a picture to illustrate the event or thing.
Preview Activity Answer these questions if you can: –Who was the first explorer (s) to find the Americas? –Who was America named after?
Objectives Identify the first major explorers of the Americas & the significance of their exploration. Judge the success of Columbus journey & its impact on the New World inhabitants.
Vikings Around 1000 A.D. they explored the coast of Labrador They tried to set up a life there but it didnt work cause they were outnumbered by hostile Native Americans.
Christopher Columbus Italian explorer that was paid by the Spanish (King Ferdinand & Queen Isabella) to find a water route to Asia. In 1492, he landed in the Caribbean. Explored the areas of present-day Cuba & Hispaniola.
Amerigo Vespucci Repeated Columbus trip to sail west. He realized that what Columbus found wasnt Asia. America was named after him.
Other explorers Ponce de Leon – discovered Florida Balboa – 1 st European to reach the Pacific coast of America. Magellan – Named the Pacific Ocean. His crew was the first to circumnavigate the globe (go all the way around the world).
Columbian Exchange Exchange between Columbus (or Europeans) and the Native Americans.
What did the Europeans get from the Indians? What did the Indians get from the Europeans?