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Chapter 10: The Federal Bureaucracy Section 1: Bureaucratic Organization Section 2: The Civil Service System Section 3: The Bureaucracy at Work.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 10: The Federal Bureaucracy Section 1: Bureaucratic Organization Section 2: The Civil Service System Section 3: The Bureaucracy at Work."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 10: The Federal Bureaucracy Section 1: Bureaucratic Organization Section 2: The Civil Service System Section 3: The Bureaucracy at Work

2 Section 1: Bureaucratic Organization I: The ___________ Departments A. The Founders anticipated the need for federal agencies to carry on the daily business of government. There are _______________ civilians working for the federal government. Q: Why so many? B. Answer: There are 15 executive departments (see p. 276) The first 2 cabinet agencies created were the Dept. of State and the Treasury Dept. Which cabinet office do you think performs the most essential service? Why?

3 Section 1 continued II: ____________ Agencies A. The federal bureaucracy includes over __________ independent organizations whose heads are appointed by the president. A few of these agencies are well known such as NASA, but most are not. Some of these agencies work directly for the executive branch such as the CIA What are __________ __________? These are government agencies that directly serve the public such as the FDIC and the US Postal Service

4 Section 1 Continued III: ________________ Commissions... 1. Are independent of all three branches of government. 2. Make rules for businesses and industries that affect the public interest 3. Are often under intense pressure from the groups they regulate and the lobbyists that work for the special interest groups. 4. Have become more limited in their powers because critics have complained that the economy is over-regulated 1. Agency reform was a big focus of the Republican Congress in the mid-1990s.

5 Section 2: The Civil Service System ________________ System Only _______% of all federal government employees work in Washington, D.C. Many federal employees work in offices throughout the U.S. and the world.

6 What is the Civil Service System? This is how __________ (non-military personnel) get jobs with the federal government. II: Origins (Where did the civil service system come from?) A. _________ system President ____________made civilian jobs political rewards. This led to corruption and inefficiency. Calls for reform began in the 1850s, but President Garfields assassination led to the passage of the Pendleton Act in 1883.

7 III: How does the Civil Service System Work Today? A. Applicants for federal jobs today are evaluated based on experience/training, NOT based on their political connections. B. Why work for the government? Benefits Job security C. The Hatch Act of 1939 is legislation designed to keep political parties from using federal employees as campaign workers. This act has been controversial: does it prevent corruption or does it limit federal workers 1 st amendment rights?Hatch Act of 1939

8 Section 2 continued IV: Political Appointees in Government A. Approximately ______ % of executive branch jobs are appointed by the president. (why?) B. These appointees are not in the civil service, so they are appointed because they are loyal supporters of the President. C. Because they are close to the president, they may not know much about the agency they work for, so when the president leaves office, many of them to back to work in the private sector. These jobs have _______________ (short tenure), making it hard for them to know much about their jobs. This means that the real work is done by the career officials. (who have low turnoverdo you remember why?)

9 Section 3: The Bureaucracy at Work I. Influence on Public Policy What is public policy? All the actions and decisions taken or NOT taken by the government. Public policy (laws) gets carried out by the federal bureaucracy. The bureaucracy plays a role in shaping what bills look like and what laws get passed. They work with members of Congress to develop legislation. Workers in the bureaucracy (agencies) actually implement laws by developing rules and regulations Bureaucrats are experts in their area of policy, so they serve as a resource of information to members of Congress.

10 Section 3 continued 5 Ways the Bureaucracy Makes Policy (a summary) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

11 Why is the Bureaucracy so Big? Historical factors WWI and WWII Great Depression Population growth Development of special interest groups Examples: Greenpeace, Sierra Club (environmental groups) NRA (gun rights) AARP (senior citizens group) NAACP (African-Americans) NOW (womens rights) American Legion, VFW (veterans)

12 Who/What Influences the Bureaucracy? 1. Influence of Congress New legislation Budget Congressional oversight 2. Influence of the Courts Citizens may sue over agency actions May issue injunctions 3. Success in Court Cases Although citizens have the right to sue, the government wins most of its cases FTC has won 91% NLRB has won about 75% of its cases

13 Section 3 continued o The Influence of Client Groups o What is a client group? o Dept. of Education and state/local school administrators o FDA and drug companies/doctors o EPA and environmental and business groups o To describe the influence of client groups on the policy making process, political scientists have developed the model of the Iron Triangle (see p. 297) o What makes up each side of the triangle? o Is this model still accurate today?


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