Presentation on theme: "Chapter Menu Chapter Introduction Lesson 1Lesson 1The Erosion- Deposition Process Lesson 2Lesson 2Landforms Shaped by Water and Wind Lesson 3Lesson 3Mass."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter Menu Chapter Introduction Lesson 1Lesson 1The Erosion- Deposition Process Lesson 2Lesson 2Landforms Shaped by Water and Wind Lesson 3Lesson 3Mass Wasting and Glaciers Chapter Wrap-Up
Chapter Introduction How do erosion and deposition shape Earths surface?
Lesson 1 Reading Guide - KC How can erosion shape and sort sediment? How are erosion and deposition related? What features suggest whether erosion or deposition created a landform? The Erosion-Deposition Process
Lesson 1-1 A combination of constructive processes and destructive processes produce landforms. Constructive processes build up features on Earths surface. Destructive processes tear down features on Earths surface. Reshaping Earths Surface
Lesson 1-2 The breakdown of rockweathering is one type of destructive process that changes Earths surface.
Lesson 1-2 Chemical weathering alters the chemical composition of rock. Physical weathering is the breaking of rock into pieces, called sediment, without changing the chemical composition of the rock. Water, wind, and ice are agents, or causes, of weathering. A Continual Process of Change
Lesson 1-2 A Continual Process of Change (cont.) The mineral composition of some rocks makes them less resistant than others are to weathering. The difference in the rate of weathering can produce unusual landforms.
Erosion Erosion is the removal of weathered material from one location to another.Erosion Agents of erosion include water, wind, glaciers, and gravity. Factors that affect the rate of erosion include weather, climate, shape of the land, and type of rock.
Lesson 1-2 Erosion (cont.) The presence of plants and the way humans use the land affect the rate of erosion. The rate of erosion sometimes depends on the type of rock. Weathering breaks some types of rock into large pieces. Other rock types easily break into smaller pieces that are more easily transported.
Lesson 1-2 As rock fragments bump against each other during erosion, the shapes of the fragments can change. How can erosion affect the shape of sediment? Erosion (cont.)
Lesson 1-2 Erosion also affects the level of sorting separating of items into groups according to one or more propertiesof sediment. Sediment is often well-sorted when it has been moved a lot by wind or waves. Erosion (cont.)
Lesson 1-2 Poorly sorted sediment often results from rapid transportation, perhaps by a storm, a flash flood, or a volcanic eruption. How can erosion sort sediment? Erosion (cont.)
Lesson 1-2 DepositionDeposition is the laying down or settling of eroded material. deposition from French deposer, means put down Deposition
Lesson 1-2 Deposition (cont.) As water or wind slows down, it has less energy and can hold less sediment, which can result in some of the sediment being deposited. Sediment is deposited in locations called depositional environments, such as swamps, deltas, beaches, and the ocean floor.
Lesson 1-2 High-energy environments, like rushing rivers and ocean shores with large waves, are those in which sediment is transported and deposited quickly. Small grains of sediment are often deposited in low-energy environments, like deep lakes, areas of slow-moving air, and swamps. Sediment deposited in water typically forms layers called beds. Deposition (cont.)
Lesson 1-2 Deposition (cont.) How are erosion and deposition related?
Lesson 1-3 Landforms can have features that are clearly produced by erosion. Different rates of erosion can create unusual landforms like tall, protruding landforms called hoodoos. Glacial erosion can produce ice-carved features in mountains. Interpreting Landforms
Lesson 1-3 Landforms created by deposition are often flat and low-lying. An apron of sediment, called an alluvial fan, often forms where a stream flows from a steep, narrow canyon onto a flat plain at the foot of a mountain. Interpreting Landforms (cont.)
Lesson 1-3 Interpreting Landforms (cont.) What features suggest whether erosion or deposition created a landform? Deposition along a riverbed occurs where the speed of the water slows down and can result in a sandbar.
Lesson 1 - VS Erosion occurring at different rates can carve rock into interesting landforms. Rock fragments with rough edges are rounded during transportation. Landforms created by deposition are often flat and low-lying.
Lesson 2 Reading Guide - KC What are the stages of stream development? How do water erosion and deposition change Earths surface? How do wind erosion and deposition change Earths surface? Landforms Shaped by Water and Wind
Lesson 2-1 Water and wind are two important agents of weathering, erosion, and deposition. Erosion by water and wind can change the shape of landforms. Shaping the Land with Water and Wind
Lesson 2-2 Streams are active systems that erode land and transport sediment. The erosion produced by a stream depends on the streams energy. This energy is usually greatest in steep, mountainous areas where young streams flow rapidly downhill. Water from a young stream slows down as it reaches gentler slopes and is then called a mature stream. Water Erosion and Deposition
Lesson 2-2 A meander is a broad, C-shaped curve in a stream.meander A stream moves slowly when it reaches flat land and is then called an old stream. As time passes, erosion of the outside bend of a meander, where water is flowing more quickly, occurs. Deposition occurs on the inside bend, where water flows more slowly. Water Erosion and Deposition (cont.)
Lesson 2-2 Over time, meanders change shape due to erosion and deposition.
Lesson 2-2 Waves crashing into shore erode loose sand, gravel, and rock along coastlines. A longshore current is a current that flows parallel to the shoreline.longshore current This current moves sediment and continually changes the size and shape of beaches. Water Erosion and Deposition (cont.)
Lesson 2-2 Water erosion can also form caves, stacks, and arches. Water Erosion and Deposition (cont.) How does water erosion change Earths surface?
Lesson 2-2 Flowing water deposits sediment as the water slows down. Slower-moving water deposits sediment on the inside curves of meanders. A delta is a large deposit of sediment that forms where a stream enters a large body of water.delta Water Erosion and Deposition (cont.)
Lesson 2-2 Much of the sand on most ocean beaches was originally deposited by rivers. Longshore currents transport the sand along ocean coasts and deposit it where the currents have less energy. Water Erosion and Deposition (cont.)
Lesson 2-2 Water deposition forms many structures within caves. Water Erosion and Deposition (cont.) How does water deposition change Earths surface?
Lesson 2-2 Ocean waves can erode beaches by removing sediment. To reduce erosion, people sometimes build structures such as retaining walls or groins. Reducing or removing vegetation from the land surface is one of the most common ways that surface erosion is increased. Water Erosion and Deposition (cont.)
Lesson 2-3 Abrasion is the grinding away of rock or other surfaces as particles carried by wind, water, or ice scrape against them.Abrasion A dune is a pile of wind-blown sand.dune Wind Erosion and Deposition
Lesson 2-3 Wind Erosion and Deposition (cont.) loess from Swiss German Lösch, means loose LoessLoess is a crumbly, windblown deposit of silt and clay.
Lesson 2-3 Plowed fields and dry, overgrazed pastures are two ways in which people contribute to wind erosion. Wind Erosion and Deposition (cont.) How do wind erosion and deposition change Earths surface?
Lesson 2 - VS Water erosion changes Earths surface. An example of this is the change in features of a stream over time. Water transports sediment and deposits it in places where the speed of the water decreases. Wind erosion can change Earths surface by moving sediment. A dune and loess are two types of wind deposition.
Lesson 3 Reading Guide - KC What are some ways gravity shapes Earths surface? How do glaciers erode Earths surface? Mass Wasting and Glaciers
Lesson 3-1 Mass wasting is the downhill movement of a large mass of rocks or soil because of the pull of gravity.Mass wasting Mass wasting commonly occurs when soil on a hillside is soaked with rainwater. A landslide is the rapid downhill movement of soil, loose rocks, and boulders.landslide Mass Wasting
Lesson 3-1 Two types of landslides are a rockfall and a mudslide. Slump is a type of mass wasting where the material moves slowly, in a large mass. If the material moves too slowly to be noticeable, causing trees and other objects to lean over, the event is called creep. Mass Wasting (cont.)
Lesson 3-1 When material reaches a stable location, such as the base of a mountain, the material is deposited. Talus is a pile of angular rocks and sediment from a rockfall.Talus Mass Wasting (cont.)
Lesson 3-1 Human activity, such as removing vegetation, can affect both the severity of mass wasting and the tendency for it to occur. Landscaping or building on a slope can make the slope steeper and more likely to undergo mass wasting. Mass Wasting (cont.)
Lesson 3-2 A glacier is a large mass of ice that formed on land and moves slowly across Earths surface.glacier The two main types of glaciers are alpine glaciers and ice sheets. Glaciers erode Earths surface as they slide over it, carving the land as they move. Glacial Erosion and Deposition
Lesson 3-2 Alpine glaciers produce distinctive erosional features.
Lesson 3-3 Sediment that was frozen in a glaciers ice is eventually deposited in various forms.
Lesson 3-3 TillTill is a mixture of various sizes of sediment deposited by a glacier. Glacial Erosion and Deposition (cont.) till Science Use rock and sediment deposited by a glacier Common Use to work by plowing, sowing, and raising crops
Lesson 3-3 A moraine is a mound or ridge of unsorted sediment deposited by a glacier.moraine Glacial Erosion and Deposition (cont.) moraine from French morena, means mound of earth
Lesson 3-3 Outwash is layered sediment deposited by streams of water that flow from a melting glacier.Outwash A small change in Earths average temperature causes considerable melting of glaciers. As glaciers melt, sea level rises around the world. Glacial Erosion and Deposition (cont.)
Lesson 3 - VS Mass wasting can occur very fast, such as when a landslide occurs, or slowly over many years. Material moved by a mass wasting event is deposited when it reaches a relatively stable location. An example is talus deposited at the base of a hill.
Lesson 3 - VS A glacier erodes Earths surface as it moves and melts. Glaciers can form U-shaped valleys when they move past mountains.
The BIG Idea Erosion and deposition are constructive and destructive forces that shape Earths surface by building up and tearing down landforms such as coastlines, dunes, rivers, lakes, mountains, glaciers, and deltas.
Key Concepts 1 Erosion is the wearing away and transportation of weathered material. Deposition is the laying down of the eroded material. Erosion tends to make rocks more rounded. Erosion can sort sediment according to its grain size. Landforms produced by deposition are usually on flat, low land. Landforms produced by erosion are often tall and/or jagged. Lesson 1: The Erosion-Deposition Process
Key Concepts 2 Lesson 2: Landforms Shaped by Water and Wind A young stream moves quickly down steep slopes. A mature stream moves more slowly and develops meanders. An old stream is wider and moves slowly. Water erosion forms V-shaped valleys. Longshore currents reshape beaches. Deposition of sediment from water can form deltas. Wind abrasion can alter the shape of rock. Wind deposition can form a dune or loess.
Key Concepts 3 Lesson 3: Mass Wasting and Glaciers Gravity can shape Earths surface through mass wasting. Creep is an example of mass wasting. A glacier erodes Earths surface as it moves by carving grooves and scratches into rock.