2BeforeThe Seljuks were the original settlers in the area of the Ottoman Empire.Although the Ottoman Empire had Islamic and Turkish origins, it had a diverse mixture of ethnic groups and religious beliefs. Non-Muslims such as the Jews, Armenians, and Greeks were able to operate courts, schools, and religious establishments based own their own traditions.The Ottoman Empire was founded in the fourteenth century in present day Turkey.
3BackgroundThis geographically small empire quickly expanded. However during the 17th century when the Ottomans were forced to give up Hungary, their fortune turned. The empire had become “the sick man of Europe” by the middle of the 19th century.
4Osman BeyOsman was the chief of a Turkish semi-nomadic group that migrated to northwestern Anatolia. He conquered the people in the area. Then, he attracted many warlords who agreed to fight for him and they became ghazi to help spread Islam.
5The SiegeThere were two fortress built to keep help from reaching Constantinople.They used cannons to destroy the city’s wallsMehmed had 50 galleys dragged to the land between two gates and the ships then used their cannon to bring down the wall.
6IstanbulAfter its capture, Istanbul became the capital and the one of the “wealthiest and most cultured cities of the early modern world” as well as being the center for military campaigns.It was the third and last capital of the Ottomans.Quotes from
7SocialThe emperor’s inherited his predecessors power as well as gained power from his militarily abilities.Successful warriors received high standing.The society of the Ottomans reflected steppe society.Ottoman rulers participated in religious rites as well.Members of the royal family often managed parts of the state governments. Women were not allowed to wield great authority according to Islamic views; however, following the example of Chinggis Khan, women played a prominent role in politics by manipulating affairs from their husband’s side.Muslims were dominate in affairs over non –Muslims and all the rulers were Muslim.
8HouseholdsWealthy homes in the Ottoman Empire were built around a central courtyard. This shows how the family life and the public affairs were separated in the Ottoman Empire. The lifestyle of middle and lower classes are unknown.The Ottoman households were harem, or forbidden to male outsiders (for women).The Ottoman family was patriarchal. Women who lived in rural regions usually worked in the fields. A woman who lived in the city could have spent her day doing household chores, supervising servants, weaving, watching children, or praying. Except for special occasions such as celebrations, life outside the house for women was limited. The parents chose who their children were to marry.
9Culture Coffee houses were a favorite gathering place of the Ottomans. Astounding architectural structures made a sky line based on styles from the Byzantine.Their society reflected mainly Islamic values as Islam was the prominent religion.
10PoliticalBy 1300, the Ottomans governed a They were in constant conflict with other surrounding Muslim states.However by 1400, they had control and small military state in western Anatolia (Turkey)influence over Anatolia and Byzantine Empire in Europe.Yet, Constantinople was able to withstand every siege and attack force that had so far come from these states.The siege began in 1391 and Bayezid constructed a watch tower fortress to keep help from reaching Constantinople.Constantinople ended up with another fortress called Rumeli Hisan (built by Sultan Mehmed) watching it.In 1453, Sultan Mehmed “the Conqueror” conquered Constantinople and renamed it Istanbul.
11PoliticsThey followed elaborate rituals that were based on earlier Byzantine, Persian, and Arab dynasties.Their large bureaucracy was lead by a great Vizier that was the overall head of the administration and held more real power than the empire.
12Important Ottoman Individuals Mehmed the Conqueror presented himself as the worrier sultan and emperor of Europe and Asia, as well as the Black Sea and the MediterraneanMehmed laid the foundation for a tightly centralized, absolute monarchy.His army were composed of two major groups: a light cavalry and a volunteer infantry, and faced no serious rivals.He worked on expansion his whole life and toward the end he launched an invasion of Italy but his successors abandoned his planSuleyman the Magnificent brought about the climax of imperialism, and he promoted expansion into Southwest Asia and Europe.He went on to conquer prominent cites and states in the Middle East and under him, the Ottoman navy became a major power Black and Aegean Sea.Their navy allowed them to challenge Christian European ships throughout the world’s ocean.
13Tulip EraThe Ottoman Empire went through a time of relative peace called the Tulip Era. During this time the empire oriented itself more towards Europe. Tulips were a fashion of this era because they were purchases by many noble peoples.During this time art and culture of the empire gave a sharp increase. In 1730 the end of the Tulip Period was marked by an uprising led by Patrona Halil.
14Economy: ExpansionThe Ottomans got constant new sources of revenue as their empire expanded.The empire became wealthy as they received jizya tax from non-Muslims in return for religious freedom and protection.
15Economy: European Influences Ottomans were affected by the Europeans newfound rout around the Cape of Good Hope because the Europeans began trading in their ports.The empire imposed taxes on trade which resulted in more in coming wealth.The guild structure was encouraged over the putting out system due to fear of innovations. This resulted in inferior products unsuitable for trade.The Ottoman Empire was an interchange point for international trade with Europeans.One example of this was Bursa where raw silk from Persia was exported to Italian marketsThe French and English formed capitulations with the Ottoman so that they could trade in Ottoman ports without taxation. This was beneficial to the ottomans because it ensured alliances against enemies in Europe.
16Colombian ExchangeThe Ottomans participated in the Columbian exchange but the new crops did not have as much of an impact as it did on other regionsWhile the Potato and tomato enriched the Ottoman diet Maize became a staple food for animal feedThe Colombian exchange did however bring about the large consumption of coffee and tobacco and founded the numerous coffee houses which stimulated the local economy.This economic bang was hindered by the moral conflict based on the feeling that Coffee houses were worse than taverns in the eyes of the religious.Sultan Murad !V tried to outlaw coffeehouses but the people’s love for coffee and tobacco ensured their survival.
17PopulationPopulation rose 9 million in 1500 to 28 million in 1600 but this was as result of the expanding empire rather than the Colombian exchange.Decline of population was due to loss of territory rather then environmental factorsThe expansion of the ottomans was not as dramatic as other early modern societies.
18Religion ExpansionThe Ottoman Empire was founded by religious warriors called GhaziThe dominate religion of the empire was IslamOttomans were Islamic but accepting of other beliefs because Islam believes that God is the same as Allah therefore these people believe the in the same creator just with different views on certain issues.Muslims consider Judaism and Christianity to be the foundation or origin of there religion.
19Religion: Conquered people Conquered people were extended the title of Dhimmi or protected peopleConquered people were not forced to convert in fact, no converts were allowed from Islam to Christianity or vise versaNon-Muslims had to pay jizya as payment for religious freedom and Christians gave the Empire devshirme which were young boys used as slaves in the sultan militaryCommunities with an alternate religion were called millet and had own language, religious practices, and civil laws.
20Decline Trade decreased and it was mostly controlled by Europeans. The Ottomans fought a costly battle with the Haggsburgs with no new source of revenue to show for itMutiny was caused when the janissaries were paid with debased coins. This spurred a series of revolts.Loss of revenue resulted in higher taxes selling offices and accepting bribes all of which destroyed the economy.The economy failed because the Ottomans let trade come to them but neglected to establish foreign ports.The Ottomans military declined due to dependence on foreign weaponry which quickly became outdated.No intellectual discoveries were made and the Ottomans fell behind the Europeans technology wise.
21BibliographyFlickr. 31 Jan <http://images.google.ca/imgres?imgurl=http://farm1.static.flickr.com/189/ _6583bc82d1.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.flickr.com/photos/ %40N00/ /&h=379&w=500&sz=151&hl=en&start=96&tbnid=0pnTEUWPLSJoJM:&tbnh=99&tbnw=130&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dottoman%2Bempire%26start%3D80%26gbv%3D2%26ndsp%3D20%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN>.“History of Ottoman Empire.” Ottoman Souvenier. 29 Jan <http://www.ottomansouvenir.com/Capitals/Istanbul.htm>.“Istanbul.” All ABout Turkey. 29 Jan <http://www.allaboutturkey.com/istanbul.htm>.More or Less. 30 Jan Jan <http://www.moreorless.au.com/background/turkey.html>. It contains bacgroung information about the Ottoman empire.“Ottoman.” WSU edu. 29 Jan <http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/OTTOMAN/OTTOMAN1.HTM>.Part 2: War, Economy and Society. 31 Jan <http://www.humanities.ualberta.ca/ottoman/war_economy.htm>.Traditions and Encounters. New York: McGraw Hill, 2003.