2THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE 1299-1918 (began in Turkey) Osman, a Turkish warrior and a Muslim, conquered the last of the Byzantine villagesOsman’s many followers were called OttomansThe Muslim Ottoman Empire controlled what is now Turkey and parts of N. Africa, SW Asia, and SE Europe
3Osman First Ottoman Sultan Ottoman rulers were called Sultansallowed Christians and Jews to worship as long as they paid a tax
4Ottoman Empire’s Rapid Growth By 1451, the Ottomans ruled many cities in the Middle East and Europe1453: Ottomans took Constantinople (Istanbul) and made it the capital of the Ottoman Empire
5Constantinople (Istanbul) One of the largest cities of the timeCenter for culture and learning
6ConstantinopleAn unknown painter of the Italian school created this view looking down over the busy Constantinople harbor.
7Architecture and Art The Parthenon: The Greek culture's primitive beginnings were in the times of Ancient Greece and developed substantially throughout the periods of the Roman Empire, and Ottoman Empire
8Architecture and Art The Parthenon: The Greek culture's primitive beginnings were in the times of Ancient Greece and developed substantially throughout the periods of the Roman Empire, and Ottoman Empire
9Architecture and ArtVenetian relations with the Ottoman Empire were sustained by trade, but punctuated by conflict.. A Venetian painter depicted the “Action of August 27, 1661,” a battle in which the combined forces of Venice and Malta—22 ships—defeated a Turkish fleet of 36 galleys.
10Sultan Selim IRuled 1512 to 1520Given keys to MeccaTook Ottoman Empire further south and eastPresent-day areas of Syria, Israel, and Egypt
15Suleyman built mosques that made the capital beautiful The mosque was built between 1609 and 1616 by order of the Sultan Ahmed I, after whom it is named. He is buried in the mosque's precincts. It is located in the oldest part of Istanbul, in what was before 1453 the centre of Constantinople, the capital of the Byzantine Empire.
1616th century Golden Age of Ottoman Empire During Suleyman I reign, the Ottoman Empire was the richest and most powerful in Europe and SW AsiaControlled trade of southwest Asia and Europe’s access to goods from the eastBy 1566, Suleyman I died but was the best known Muslim leader in the world
17Impact of Ottoman’s Rule All Ottoman rulers followed IslamAs the empire grew, Islamic culture spreadWestern Europe was mainly a Christian cultureThe West treated the Ottoman Empire as a threat because of the large Islamic populationEuropean Christians feared the spread of Islam
18Fear affects TradeAll trade routes to the east were Ottoman controlled – the Empire had access to the Persian Gulf, the Black Sea, and the Mediterranean Sea.Europe and Asia were linked by Ottoman trade routes.Many European traders did not want to trade with the Ottomans because of the fear of IslamTherefore, Western Europeans began to search for other ways to reach AsiaThis search led to the Age of Exploration in Europe
19Decline of the Ottoman Empire After Suleyman’s death, the Empire declined over the next 300 yearsThe empire gained and lost territory oftenFirst, the empire lost parts of Europe. It was called the “Sick Man of Europe.”Due to the fear of Islam, Europe did not want to trade with the OttomansLed to economic decline and weaknessEurope able to take back territories
22Decline continued…By 1800s, empire near bankrupt and could not compete with EuropeIn the early 1900s, Ottoman empire very weak and therefore sided with the Central Powers in WWIAllied Powers (England, France, Russia, and the USA) won WWINot good enough by 1918, Ottoman Empire endedTreaty of Sevres split the land of the empire among the Allied powersOctober 29, 1923 modern Turkish republic declared