2You have recently seen the following sentences: tertiā hōrā Sīlānus mīlitēs in ōrdinēs longos īnstrūxit, ut Agricolam salūtārent.At the third hour, Silanus drew the soldiers into long lines in order to greet Agricola.Agricola ad tribūnal prōcessit ut pauca dīceret.Agricola proceeded to the platform to say a few things.These are called Purpose Clauses.
3Purpose ClausesPurpose clauses show the purpose for which an action is done (well, duh, right?).Purpose clauses are translated with the phrasing “in order to,” “for the purpose of,” or just “to verb” depending on context.
4Forming Purpose Clauses Purpose clauses are formed in the following way:independent + ut + dependent clause withclause a verb in thesubjunctive
5Examples Some more examples: Omnes cives ad silvam contenderunt ut leonem mortuum spectarent.All the citizens hurried to the woods in order to look at the dead lion.Dominus stilum et ceras poposcit ut epistulam scriberet.The master demands a stylus and wax in order to write a letter.Rex iter ad fontem fecit ut aquam sacram biberet.The king made a journey to the spring for the purpose of drinking the sacred water.
6GerundivesPreviously you have seen sentences expressing necessity formed like this:Necesse est vobis laborare.It is necessary for you to work. (Or, You must work.)Here is another way of expressing necessity:Vobis laborandum est.You must work.This is called a gerundive.
7Recognizing Gerundives Gerundives can be recognized by the nd in the verb:vobis laborandum est.nobis currendum est.
8The construction of a gerundive + est is called a gerundive of obligation OR a passive periphrastic. Your book does not talk about these terms yet, but since I know you can handle it, I am teaching them to you now.This construction shows necessity or obligation. Translate it using must.
9Examples: mihi fugiendum est. nobis ambulandum est. I must flee.nobis ambulandum est.We must walk.tibi hic manendum est.You must stay here.servis diligenter laborandum est.The slaves must work diligently.omnibus civibus tacendum est quod sacerdotes appropinquant.All citizens must be silent because the priests are approaching.si Imperatorem videre volunt, eis festinandum est.If they want to see the emperor, they must hurry.