Presentation on theme: "SUPINE UT + INDICATIVE MORE RELATIVES MORE SUBJUNCTIVE USES IMPERSONAL CONSTRUCTIONS Chapter 32."— Presentation transcript:
SUPINE UT + INDICATIVE MORE RELATIVES MORE SUBJUNCTIVE USES IMPERSONAL CONSTRUCTIONS Chapter 32
Supine Another VERBAL NOUN (in addition to Gerund) But … only 2 CASES! Built off of 4 th Principal Part, adding 4 th Declension Endings 1 st Conj.2 nd Conj.3 rd Conj.3 rd - io Conj. 4 th Conj. Acc.AmātumDoctumRēctumCaptumAudītum Abl.AmātūDoctūRēctūCaptūAudītū
Supine They can take their own objects, too!
Supine Abl. is used as an ABLATIVE OF SPECIFICATION Examples: Mīrābile dictū “Miraculous with respect to saying” = English, “A wonder to say” Nefās audītū “A crime with respect to hearing” = English, “A crime to hear” These cannot take direct objects! Three more common supines: Difficile cognītū Optimum factū Facile vīsū
Ut with Indicative 2 possible meanings: Time: WHEN Comparison: AS Examples: Ut summō cōnspexit ab monte terrās īnfēlix, timōre tremuit “When the unlucky guy saw the lands from the top of the mountain, he trembled with fear.” Puellae tacent nec, ut ante solēbant, clāmantēs ambulant. “The girls are silent and not, as they were accustomed beforehand, walking around and shouting.”
Connecting Relative Sometimes a relative pronoun begins a new sentence and must be translated in a certain manner: Quī … = et is / hic “And he” Quae … = et ea / haec “And she” Quod … = et id / hoc “And this” Ex: Quod crēdī vix potest. “And this is scarcely able to be believed.” THESE CANNOT BE TRANSLATED AS “WHO”, “WHAT”, or “WHICH”!
Subjunctive with Relatives Sometimes the subjunctive is used in relative clauses: 1) Clauses of Characteristic: These describe the qualities of indefinite antecedents and are usually introduced by Sunt quī Is sum quī Is est quī, etc. Ex: sunt quī Graecōs meliōrēs quam Rōmānōs habeant “There are those who consider Greeks (to be) better than Romans” Nōn is sum quī fēminās interficiam. “I am not the kind of guy who would kill women” Always follow sequence of tenses!
Subjunctive with Relatives Sometimes the subjunctive is used in relative clauses: 2) Relative Clauses of Purpose: These replace ut …. in a Purpose Clause Ex: lēgātōs mīsit quī pācem peterent. “He sent legates who were to ask for peace” or “He sent legates to ask for peace” Rōmānī arma rapiunt quibus urbem suam dēfendant. “The Romans take up the weapons with which they are to defend their city” or “The Romans take up weapons in order to defend their city” Always follow Sequence of Tenses!!!!
Subjunctives with Relatives Sometimes the subjunctive is used in relative clauses: 3) Subjunctive in Subordinate Clauses in Indirect Speech RULE! DEPENDENT CLAUSES in INDIRECT STATEMENT, INDIRECT COMMAND, or INDIRECT QUESTION will ALWAYS have SUBJUNCTIVE verbs! Ex.: dīcit sē librum lēgisse quem dederim “He says that he read the book which I gave him. Iūrāvit sē librum lectūrum esse quem scrīpsissem. “He swore that he would read the book which I had written” Note how the TENSE of the SUBJUNCTIVE follows SEQUENCE OF TENSES Established by the MAIN VERB (Here, dīcit and Iūrāvit)!
Potential Subjunctive The main clause in Future Less Vivid Conditions shows potentiality: Sī sim bonus, bona faciam. “If I should be good, then I would do good things” A Potential Subjunctive simply expresses this by itself, without the Sī clause The negative is nōn Possible tenses: Present, Perfect, Imperfect It most frequently appears: Velim: “I would like” Mālim: “I would prefer” Possim: “I could”
Potential Subjunctive Examples: tū velim sīc exīstimēs “I’d like you to think so” Present = Immediate future Pāce tuā dīxerim “I would say with your permission” Perfect = Immediate future Crēderēs victōs “You would have thought them conquered” This use of the second person is indefinite, like in English when we say, “You’d go right at the stop sign to get to the grocery store” = “One goes right at the stop sign …” Imperfect = Past time Aliquis dīcat “Someone may say” Present = Immediate future Notice the rather strange use of the perfect tense to refer to immediate future time, just as the present does
Impersonal Constructions Like English, Latin has some verbs that are only used impersonally: Oportet + acc. + infinitive = “It is right for x to y” Licet + dat. + infinitive = “It is permitted for x to y” Other verbs are used impersonally in certain contexts: Ventum est Literally, “There was a coming” or “It was come” = “They came” Pugnatum est Literally, “It was fought” = “They fought” As you continue in Latin you will come across even more Impersonal Verbs, but for now start with Oportet and Licet!