2Direct Commands Previously, we’ve seen imperatives as direct commands: redite!Go back!pecuniam trade!Hand over the money!
3Indirect CommandsWhen a command is reported or referred to indirectly, it is called an indirect command.legatus militibus imperavit ut redirent.The commander ordered his soldiers to go back.latrones mercatori imperaverunt ut pecuniam traderet.The robbers ordered the merchant to hand over the money.
4Formula Independent clause with a verb of asking, + ut + subjunctive ordering, or begging verbPlease note: even though verbs of asking, ordering or begging are head verbs, the big difference between an indirect command and an indirect question is that an indirect command uses ut while an indirect question uses a question word.
5Indirect Command Practice Translate the indirect commands below.1. centurio mihi imperavit ut tacerem.The centurion ordered me to be quiet.2. senex nos orabat ut sibi parceremus.The old man was begging us to spare him. (…that we spare him.)3. nemo ancillae persuadere poterat ut saltaret.No one was able to persuade the slave woman to dance.4. coquus servis imperavit ut vinum in mensam ponerent.The cook ordered the slaves to place the wine on the table.5. vos saepe monebam ut diligenter laboraretis.I used to warn you often to work diligently.6. comites mercatorem monuerunt ut ab oppido clam discederet.The companions warned the merchant to depart from the town secretly.
6Result Clauses Have a look at the following examples: tanta erat multitudo ut totam aulam compleret.So great was the crowd that it filled the whole palace.Modestus erat adeo pulcher ut paucae puellae ei resistere possent.Modestus was so handsome that few girls could resist him.These are result clauses because they show the result of a situation or action.
7Formula Independent clause with a word of size + ut + subjunctive or degree verbPlease note: Although purpose clauses and result clauses look identical because they use ut, a result clause will have a word of degree or size in the independent clause where a purpose clause does not.
8Words of Degree or Size adeo : so much, so greatly tam: so tantus-a-um: so great, such a greattot: so many
9Practice 1. tam stultus erat dominus ut omnes servi eum deriderent. The master was so stupid that all the slaves mocked him.2. tantus erat clamor ut nemo iussa centurionum audiret.The clamor was so great that no one was able to hear the orders of the centurions.3. Agricola tot milites emisit ut hostes fugerent.Agricola sent out so many soldiers that the enemy fled.4. centurionem adeo timebam ut ad castra redire non auderem.I so greatly feared the centurion that I did not dare to return to the camp.5. tot servos habebas ut eos numerare non posses.You have so many slaves that you are not able to count them.6. ancillae nostrae tam diligenter laborabant ut eas saepe laudaremus.Our slave women were working so diligently that we often praised them.