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Nutrient and Heavy Metal Levels in Lake Munson Lauren Hauser, Erin Jenson, Sunny Ojah, Mia Paul, Ruth Ralph, Nicole Robinson.

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Presentation on theme: "Nutrient and Heavy Metal Levels in Lake Munson Lauren Hauser, Erin Jenson, Sunny Ojah, Mia Paul, Ruth Ralph, Nicole Robinson."— Presentation transcript:

1 Nutrient and Heavy Metal Levels in Lake Munson Lauren Hauser, Erin Jenson, Sunny Ojah, Mia Paul, Ruth Ralph, Nicole Robinson

2 Lake Munson Lake Munson / According to information released by the U.S. Environmental protection Agency, Lake Munson is 255-acre cypress rimmed freshwater Lake located in the Sand hills region in Tallahassee Florida. Lake Munson Receives 75% of the run off of Tallahassee Florida. / According to information released by the U.S. Environmental protection Agency, Lake Munson is 255-acre cypress rimmed freshwater Lake located in the Sand hills region in Tallahassee Florida. Lake Munson Receives 75% of the run off of Tallahassee Florida.

3 Problem / The objectives of this experiment are to determine nitrate, phosphate and copper, levels not only in the water entering and leaving Lake Munson but also at points in between. According to the TAPP (Think About Personal Pollution) source that we used, Lake Munson receives 57% of urban runoff from Tallahassee alone which would indicate that the nitrate, phosphate and copper levels would be high coming to and leaving the lake. We want to know where the runoff is present and which areas are most affected by nutrients and/or heavy metals the most. Phosphate (PO 4 - ) and nitrate (NO 3 - ) are the nutrients involved. Nitrate and phosphate are nutrients that are present in fertilizer that are used in urban living areas and fertilizers. Excesses in nitrate and phosphate levels occur when too many nutrients such as fertilizers from farms, or urban living spaces accumulate and go into water bodies such as Lake Munson. /T/T/T/The objectives of this experiment are to determine nitrate, phosphate and copper, levels not only in the water entering and leaving Lake Munson but also at points in between. According to the TAPP (Think About Personal Pollution) source that we used, Lake Munson receives 57% of urban runoff from Tallahassee alone which would indicate that the nitrate, phosphate and copper levels would be high coming to and leaving the lake. We want to know where the runoff is present and which areas are most affected by nutrients and/or heavy metals the most. Phosphate (PO4-) and nitrate (NO3-) are the nutrients involved. Nitrate and phosphate are nutrients that are present in fertilizer that are used in urban living areas and fertilizers. Excesses in nitrate and phosphate levels occur when too many nutrients such as fertilizers from farms, or urban living spaces accumulate and go into water bodies such as Lake Munson.

4 Problem Continued Problem Continued / The results could be devastating because when nitrate levels get too high it causes algae (or any other plant life subjected to it) to grow far too fast and excessively, to the point that it makes a huge green layer over the lake and cut off oxygen and sunlight to wildlife (fish and other creatures living in the water). This causes fish kills and is called utrofication. Copper as well can be toxic at certain levels as well causing contamination of wildlife habitats throughout the lake. We want to determine if the levels of the contaminants pose a risk to wildlife in Lake Munson, and what areas of the lake might need special attention. Our Question that we hope to answer is, is Lake Munson at Risk of the dangerous side effects of too many nutrients?

5 Hypothesis Hypothesis / The contaminate levels will be the highest in the water coming into the lake rather than leaving it because after the pollutants have come into the lake, they have had more time to dilute into the lake Munson lake water. /T/The contaminate levels will be the highest in the water coming into the lake rather than leaving it because after the pollutants have come into the lake, they have had more time to dilute into the lake Munson lake water.

6 Materials and Equipment Small plastic collection bottles Permanent marker Tape Styrofoam Cooler Ice Plastic Baggies ph testing equipment Plastic Filter Plastic Weigh Boats Graduated Cylinder Brush Scale Magnetic Stirrer 100 ml beaker Small plastic collection bottles Permanent marker Tape Styrofoam Cooler Ice Plastic Baggies ph testing equipment Plastic Filter Plastic Weigh Boats Graduated Cylinder Brush Scale Magnetic Stirrer 100 ml beaker

7 Materials and Equipment Materials and Equipment 20 ml beaker Pipette 10 ml pipette tips 50 ml pipette tips Spatula Drying Oven Freezer ml volumetric flasks 1 1 L volumetric flask ml test tubes 250 ml graduated cylinder Ultra Violet Visible Spectrometer Paper Towels ml plastic test bottles small plastic cubic pipettes 20 ml beaker Pipette 10 ml pipette tips 50 ml pipette tips Spatula Drying Oven Freezer ml volumetric flasks 1 1 L volumetric flask ml test tubes 250 ml graduated cylinder Ultra Violet Visible Spectrometer Paper Towels ml plastic test bottles small plastic cubic pipettes

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9 Materials and Equipment LaMotte Nitrate Test o Mixed Acid Reagent o 4 10 ml test valves with caps o Nitrate reducing reagent o Small Plastic Spatula o LaMotte Axial reader o Stopper LaMotte Copper Test Kit o LaMotte Axial reader for Copper o Copper Reagent o 4 10 ml test valves with caps o Nitrate reducing reagent o Small Plastic Spatula o Stopper LaMotte Nitrate Test o Mixed Acid Reagent o 4 10 ml test valves with caps o Nitrate reducing reagent o Small Plastic Spatula o LaMotte Axial reader o Stopper LaMotte Copper Test Kit o LaMotte Axial reader for Copper o Copper Reagent o 4 10 ml test valves with caps o Nitrate reducing reagent o Small Plastic Spatula o Stopper

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11 Procedure Procedure / At Lake Munson: / 1.Arrive at the lake, and check off each of the necessary items needed for the experiment. / 2.You need to collect three water samples in four different parts if the lake including the input, output, boat ramp, and a random area in the middle of the lake. / 3.To collect the input samples of the lake take three of the different water sample bottles, a permanent marker, tape, and the necessary gear for getting on the boat to collect the samples. /A/At Lake Munson: /1/1.Arrive at the lake, and check off each of the necessary items needed for the experiment. /2/2.You need to collect three water samples in four different parts if the lake including the input, output, boat ramp, and a random area in the middle of the lake. /3/3.To collect the input samples of the lake take three of the different water sample bottles, a permanent marker, tape, and the necessary gear for getting on the boat to collect the samples.

12 Procedure Procedure Ride the boat until you reach the input of the lake, and collect three samples of that area. Label each of the bottles with the name Lake Munson Entrance 1-. / Repeat step number four for each area, and make sure you label the area in which you are collecting samples from correctly. Place each water sample bottle in a cooler full of ice, and take to the lab for testing. Ride the boat until you reach the input of the lake, and collect three samples of that area. Label each of the bottles with the name Lake Munson Entrance 1-. / R/ Repeat step number four for each area, and make sure you label the area in which you are collecting samples from correctly. Place each water sample bottle in a cooler full of ice, and take to the lab for testing.

13 Phosphate Testing Procedure / Filter out each of the water samples to clean out all of the dirt from the lake water. Place the new samples into clean bottles, and re-label each. / Place 10ml of each of the four water samples into test tubes. Make sure you use three test tubes of sample water for each area, and number of sample. / Next make four different solutions to test the phosphate level of the sample water. / Filter out each of the water samples to clean out all of the dirt from the lake water. Place the new samples into clean bottles, and re-label each. / Place 10ml of each of the four water samples into test tubes. Make sure you use three test tubes of sample water for each area, and number of sample. / Next make four different solutions to test the phosphate level of the sample water.

14 Phosphate Testing Continued / For the first solution add 78ml concentrated of H2SO4 and dilute up to 500ml ddH2O. / For the second solution, using a weigh boat measure out 1.35 g of C6H8O6 and using a magnetic stirrer dissolve in 25ml of ddH2O. Store in the refrigerator. / For the third solution, use a weigh boat and measure out 0.34 g of the K(SbO)C4H4O6 and dissolve in 250ml ddH2O. Store in refrigerator. / For solution number 4, weigh out 7.5 g of (NH4)6Mo7O24 and dissolve in 250ml ddH2O. Store in the dark. Discard if there is a precipitate. / For the first solution add 78ml concentrated of H2SO4 and dilute up to 500ml ddH2O. / For the second solution, using a weigh boat measure out 1.35 g of C6H8O6 and using a magnetic stirrer dissolve in 25ml of ddH2O. Store in the refrigerator. / For the third solution, use a weigh boat and measure out 0.34 g of the K(SbO)C4H4O6 and dissolve in 250ml ddH2O. Store in refrigerator. / For solution number 4, weigh out 7.5 g of (NH4)6Mo7O24 and dissolve in 250ml ddH2O. Store in the dark. Discard if there is a precipitate.

15 MORE Phosphate Testing / Lastly, Solution number 5. Add in order: 62.5 ml of solution #1, 25ml of solution#2, 12.5ml of solution #3, and 25ml of solution #4. Solution should be a light yellow and make 125ml. / Allow the solution to come to room temperature. / Add 2.0ml of Solution #5 to each of the 10ml water sample test tubes using a pipet. Make sure you replace each of the tips of the pipets every time. Wait 30 minutes for light blue-green color to develop. / Lastly, Solution number 5. Add in order: 62.5 ml of solution #1, 25ml of solution#2, 12.5ml of solution #3, and 25ml of solution #4. Solution should be a light yellow and make 125ml. / Allow the solution to come to room temperature. / Add 2.0ml of Solution #5 to each of the 10ml water sample test tubes using a pipet. Make sure you replace each of the tips of the pipets every time. Wait 30 minutes for light blue-green color to develop.

16 LAST STEP OF PHOSPHATE TESTING 1. Place each of the test tubes in the spectrometer and place the samples in cubic privettes. You should allow 880 nanometers of light to be transmitted through the sample. Record.

17 Nitrate Testing (using the Lamotte testing kits) / Fill the water 10 ml water sampling bottle with sample water. / Fill two test tubes to the 5ml line with sampling water. / Dilute the sample to the 10 ml line with Mixed Acid Reagent. Cap and mix. / Wait two minutes for it to settle. / Use 0.1g spoon to add 1 level measure of Nitrate Reducing Reagent. / Fill the water 10 ml water sampling bottle with sample water. / Fill two test tubes to the 5ml line with sampling water. / Dilute the sample to the 10 ml line with Mixed Acid Reagent. Cap and mix. / Wait two minutes for it to settle. / Use 0.1g spoon to add 1 level measure of Nitrate Reducing Reagent.

18 Nitrate Testing Continued / Cap tube. Invert top slowly and completely 30 times in 1 minute to insure complete mixing. / Wait 10 minutes. / Insert tube into the Axial Reader. Fill test tubes to 10 ml line with sample water. Place in Axial Reader. Match sample color to a color standard. Record as ppm Nitrate-Nitrogen. / Cap tube. Invert top slowly and completely 30 times in 1 minute to insure complete mixing. / Wait 10 minutes. / Insert tube into the Axial Reader. Fill test tubes to 10 ml line with sample water. Place in Axial Reader. Match sample color to a color standard. Record as ppm Nitrate-Nitrogen.

19 Copper Testing / Fill three test tubes to the 10 ml line with sample water. Insert two tubes as blanks to the Axial Reader. / Add 5 drops of Copper 1 to the third test tube. Cap and invert several times to mix. Solution will turn yellow if copper is present. Remove cap. / Insert into copper comparator with Axial Reader. Match sample color to a color standard. Record as ppm copper. / If sample is darker than the 0.5 ppm color standard, the sample must be diluted, and retested following steps 1-3. / Fill three test tubes to the 10 ml line with sample water. Insert two tubes as blanks to the Axial Reader. / Add 5 drops of Copper 1 to the third test tube. Cap and invert several times to mix. Solution will turn yellow if copper is present. Remove cap. / Insert into copper comparator with Axial Reader. Match sample color to a color standard. Record as ppm copper. / If sample is darker than the 0.5 ppm color standard, the sample must be diluted, and retested following steps 1-3.

20 Data and Observations / At Lake Munson: / - At the Boat Ramp site, there were not many things growing and there was not a lot of vegetation, there was a lot of trash and garbage which was ruining the site; water very murky / - At the input site, there was a lot of vegetation, and there were many plants, trees, bushes and aquatic plants; not a lot of pollution; water somewhat murky / - At the output site, there was also a lot of vegetation, especially of the aquatic variety; only a little bit of pollution; the water was clearer than that at the input site / - At the middle of the lake, there was no pollution, and lush vegetation; the water was very murky / At Lake Munson: / - At the Boat Ramp site, there were not many things growing and there was not a lot of vegetation, there was a lot of trash and garbage which was ruining the site; water very murky / - At the input site, there was a lot of vegetation, and there were many plants, trees, bushes and aquatic plants; not a lot of pollution; water somewhat murky / - At the output site, there was also a lot of vegetation, especially of the aquatic variety; only a little bit of pollution; the water was clearer than that at the input site / - At the middle of the lake, there was no pollution, and lush vegetation; the water was very murky

21 Data and Observations / At the FAMU Laboratory: / When we were filtering out the samples, the process seemed pretty thorough. / Hardly any dirt, after filtration (at least observable by the naked eye) was present. / When were tested for phosphate, when we took the samples out of the machine, they were changed into a light navy blue color. / At the FAMU Laboratory: / When we were filtering out the samples, the process seemed pretty thorough. / Hardly any dirt, after filtration (at least observable by the naked eye) was present. / When were tested for phosphate, when we took the samples out of the machine, they were changed into a light navy blue color.

22 Data Analysis / During the testing of Nitrate and Copper: / The samples mostly did not change color. / The pink color that should have accompanied the sample if nitrate was present did not appear. / It was evident from these tests that the nitrate and copper levels are hardly a threat to Lake Munson. / During the testing of Nitrate and Copper: / The samples mostly did not change color. / The pink color that should have accompanied the sample if nitrate was present did not appear. / It was evident from these tests that the nitrate and copper levels are hardly a threat to Lake Munson.

23 Data Analysis / Formula used on Exel for Net Absorbance: fx =+D31 - $G$25 / Absorbance= (M)(concentration b) / / Formula used on Exel for Concentration : fx = =J21+G31 / Conentraion = Net Absorbance – / ( ) / Formula used on Exel for Net Absorbance: fx =+D31 - $G$25 / Absorbance= (M)(concentration b) / / Formula used on Exel for Concentration : fx = =J21+G31 / Conentraion = Net Absorbance – / ( )

24 Sample ID Absorbanc e Net Absorbance Concentration mg/l BR1a Averages BR1b BR2a BR2b BR3a BR3b Data Analysis

25 Sample ID Absorbanc eNet AbsorbanceConcentration mg/l Averages LE1a LE1b LE2a LE2b LE3a

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27 Amount of NitrateAmount of Copper Lake Entrance 1Non detectable0.05 Lake Entrance 2Non detectable0.00 Lake Entrance 3Non detectable0.00 LEX#1Non detectable0.00 LEX#2Non detectable0.00 LEX#3Non detectable0.00 Boat Ramp 1Non detectable0.00 Boat Ramp 2Non detectable0.00 Boat Ramp 3Non detectable0.00 Middle of the Lake 1Non detectable0.05 Middle of the Lake 2Non detectable0.00 Middle of the Lake 3Non detectable0.00 Lamotte Test Results

28 Conclusion / Conclusion: / Our hypothesis was partially correct as well as incorrect. With the Phosphate, the testing that we did indicated that there was in fact a good amount of phosphate present in the lake Munson water. The information gathered showed that the average concentration of the water was at its highest at the entrance and lower a t the exit. This proves a part of our hypothesis right in the sense that when the nutrient phosphate is present, its concentration lowers by the time it leaves the lake. This could be for multiple reasons. The most likely of them being that the plants and sediment of the lake are absorbing the nutrients. / Conclusion: / Our hypothesis was partially correct as well as incorrect. With the Phosphate, the testing that we did indicated that there was in fact a good amount of phosphate present in the lake Munson water. The information gathered showed that the average concentration of the water was at its highest at the entrance and lower a t the exit. This proves a part of our hypothesis right in the sense that when the nutrient phosphate is present, its concentration lowers by the time it leaves the lake. This could be for multiple reasons. The most likely of them being that the plants and sediment of the lake are absorbing the nutrients.

29 Conclusion Continued / The nitrate and copper were in so low concentration that they were either not detectable by the testing equipment that we used or just enough to be counted as a number higher than 0. This indicates that Lake Munson is not at risk for serious environmental consequences at least from nitrate and copper. The phosphate may be something that scientist want to keep their eyes on. The reasons that the nitrate and copper levels were not so high could have been that they are not a real problem being controlled naturally by Lake Munson or the fact that people in Tallahassee have not

30 Limitations and Improvements / The samples were not all the same depth which could throw off accuracy. / Machines were not used for testing Nitrate and copper, the samples were by hand. / All the tests have limited sensitivity. / The samples were not all the same depth which could throw off accuracy. / Machines were not used for testing Nitrate and copper, the samples were by hand. / All the tests have limited sensitivity.

31 Limitations and Improvements / The measurements were perceived through human eyes which is subjective. / The sample location was limited to types of samples and the number of samples. / Improvements: We could have had more samples from more locations. / There could have been different analytical methods with greater sensitivity. / Samples could have been at the same depth. / The measurements were perceived through human eyes which is subjective. / The sample location was limited to types of samples and the number of samples. / Improvements: We could have had more samples from more locations. / There could have been different analytical methods with greater sensitivity. / Samples could have been at the same depth.

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