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Chapter 16 Central Europe.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 16 Central Europe."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 16 Central Europe

2 Ch. 16 - sect. 1 France Northern France Paris Basin - large region
drained by the Seine Center -Paris Lille, France - industrial center north of Paris Southwestern France Warmer , dryer soil - perfect for grapes Bordeaux - best wine producing city

3 Section 1 continued Southcentral and Southeastern France
Massif Central (middle) and Alps (west) Rhone river lies between them Massif central - poor soil tunnel through Mont Blanc into Italy

4 France cont. French Riviera - between the Alps and the Mediterranean sea, low - lying coastal area, popular tourist area Port of Marseille - busiest in France Petroleum, wine, electronic goods, and chemicals

5 France - history and culture
France was known as Gaul, Romans took over and ruled for 500 years Franks came from Germany and conquered the region Charlemagne - King of France and surrounding area The Holy Roman Empire (768 A.D.) After Charlemagne’s death and the fall of the Empire nobles took power Hugh Capet - Paris ruler that expanded the borders of France to what we know today (1589) end of monarch rule in France

6 French culture French - main language, but many dialects (variations for a language that are unique to the region) Artists - Claude Monet, Pierre Renoir Impressionism - style of painting France Today Nationalized - brought under state control France has done this for some businesses to spark the economy

7 Pictures The Louve Arc de Triomph Renoir Water Lilies by Monet

8 Germany 16-2 Germany struggles for unity
Protestant Reformation - divided Germany East Germany - known as Prussia led a movement to merge states into a Confederation - loose political union 1871 Germany defeats France in the Franco - Prussian war - New German Empire formed

9 Germany WWI Germany was a part of the Triple Alliance - defeated in 1918 Treaty of Versailles - ended WWI, made Germany pay reparations, and Germany took the blame for the war Inflation and eventual depression caused Adolf Hitler to come to power WWII

10 One people, two countries
After WWII Germany was divided into 4 parts - eventually became 2 (East and West) Federal Republic of Germany (West) established in 1949 Oct. 3, officially reunified East and West North, Central and Southern Germany - see your region assignment

11 Section 3 Benelux countries
Low countries - Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg Low, flat and just a little larger than W. Virginia Population - 26 million (Canada’s pop.) Netherlands Belgium Luxembourg

12 Netherlands 1/5 of their land is reclaimed from the sea
1/3 of their land is below sea level Started with dikes - embankments of earth and rock, hold back water Polder - reclaiming the land by pumping out the water into canals Powered by windmills

13 Netherlands - cont. Randstad - The Hague, Rotterdam, Amsterdam, and Utretcht - 4 cities that make up an arc shaped metropolis - trying to keep their population in cities Many key ports

14 Belgium Diversity in their population - 30% French (Walloons) 55% Dutch (Flemish) - official language Gained independence from Netherlands in 1830 LUXEMBOURG 998 sq. miles Lang - diverse French, German and Luxembourg Part of EC Economic activity - high tech. and service industries

15 Sect. 4 Switzerland - Confederation Helvetica or Swiss Confederation
3 official languages - German (65%), French (18%) and Italian (7%) 26 cantons - states Executive branch - 7 member council with 1 elected “President” for 1 year Swiss Cantons fought the Austrian empire and won - Switzerland was formed Swiss defeated Napoleon and it was the last time they took sides in a war - NEUTRAL

16 Switzerland cont. Economy - strong even though they have few resources
One Swiss Franc American dollar Dairy farming - most important ag. spring - in Mt Fall - valley Famous for chocolate and cheese Technology - watches and microscopes tourism

17 Switzerland - physical
Climate - marine west coast - temperate variations according to elevation Mountains - Alps (south) Jura (N.W.) Population 7 million Religion - catholic with large atheist population Not in EU Joined UN in 2002

18 Austria Modern borders were formed after their defeat in WWI (Austria - Hungarian empire) Alps - iron ore Machine tools - manufacturing Ag. - cattle breeding and dairy Vienna - smaller since 1918 Heavy influence from Germany (98% ) One Euro = 1.5 American $

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