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France Switzerland Belgium Netherlands Germany Austria Luxemburg.

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Presentation on theme: "France Switzerland Belgium Netherlands Germany Austria Luxemburg."— Presentation transcript:

1 France Switzerland Belgium Netherlands Germany Austria Luxemburg

2 *Read the first section and fill in the notes as you read. (pgs. 310-313) * When you are finished you can grab the homework sheet on West-Central Europe and start working on it. Section 1: Physical Geography


4 Physical Geography  Plains  Northern European Plain: broad costal plain that stretches from the Atlantic Coast into Eastern Europe  Best farmland in this region  Many people live in the plain  Largest cities are located here  Uplands  Rounded hills  Small plateaus  Valleys  Good for mining and industry  Mountains  Alps and the Pyrenees  Rivers  For centuries people and goods have traveled these rivers  Danbue  Rhine  Navigable River- A river that is deep and wide enough for ships to use.  Rivers and a system of channels link the regions interior to the seas.  Seas  North sea  English channel

5 Climate and Resources  Climate:  Marine West Coast Climate  Winters can be cold  Summers are mild  Rain and storms occur often  Resources:  Mineral resources:  France- coal and iron ore  Germany-coal  Netherlands-natural gas  Hydroelectric power from the rivers  Mild climate is a valuable natural resource  Mild temperatures, plentiful rains and rich soil give this region great farmland  Grapes/ grains/vegetables

6 Section 2: France and the Benelux Countries

7 History of France Early History  Early Celtic peoples settle in Gaul.  The Romans conquer Gaul and rule the region for hundreds of years. (AD 400’s)  The Franks conquer Gaul. The ruler Charlemagne builds a powerful empire.  Normans settle in northwestern France. In 1066 they conquer England and take the throne.  France and England fight the Hundred Years War (1337-1453)…..The French eventually drove out the English. Revolution and Empire In the 1500’s France begins to build a colonial empire.  In 1789 the people rise up in the French Revolution.  In 1799 Napoleon takes control. He soon conquers much of Europe.  European powers unit to defeat Napoleon in 1815.

8 History of France contiued Modern History  German forces invade France during WWI and WWII.  Many French colonies declare independence in the 1950’s and 1960’s.  Today France is a Republic with a president and a democratic government.


10 Culture of France  Language and Religion  Most people throughout France speak French and are catholic.  There are many immigrants that have settled in France and bring with them their own languages and religions.  Customs  Phrase that they live by “Joie de vivre” (zhwah duh veev-ruh) meaning enjoyment of life.  The French enjoy good food, company and conversation.  Festivals  Bastille Day July 14 th – which celebrates when a mob in 1789 destroyed a bastille, Paris prison, symbolizing the French king’s rule….this began the French Revolution.  Food  French chefs and French cooking has worldwide reputations.  Café and cuisine come from France.

11 Culture of France Ideas  French Enlightenment:  Ideas about government that inspired the American revolution and the development of modern democracy. Art  Impressionism  Literature  “The Three musketeers”  Architecture:  Cathedrals in the gothic style from the Middle Ages  Notre Dame Cathedral

12 France Today  Strong economy  Exports of goods  Perfume  Wine  Agriculture  Wheat  Grapes  Paris:  75% of the population lives in Paris, the capital of France.  Paris is the center of business/finance/learning/culture  Famous museums/galleries/ Eiffel tower and Notre Dame cathedral Marseille: (Mar-say)  Mediterranean seaport on the Rhone river

13 The Benelux Countries  Belgium  Netherlands  Luxemburg  History:  Many nations and empires dominated the Benelux region.  Each country gained independence from foreign nations and empires:  1648 Netherlands  1830 Belgium  1867 Luxemburg

14 The Benelux Countries The Netherlands  Low and flat land  Includes the region of Holland; people who live here are called the Dutch.  This area also includes Amsterdam.  Excellent harbors has made the Netherlands a center of International trade. Belgium  Highly urban country, 95% of people live in cities.  Language divides Belgium  South: Wallonia ( Walloons) speak French  North: Flanders, speak flemish  Cultural differences have caused tensions  Capital is Brussels and is the head quarter for many international organizations.  Considered a highly cosmopolitan area, or an area characterized by many foreign influences.  Known for its cheeses, chocolate and lace.

15 The Benelux Countries Luxembourg  Forested, hilly country  Very small ( smaller then Rhode Island)  Very high standard of living  Roman Catholic  Speak wither French or German  Much it’s income comes from bank, steel or chemicals

16 Section 3: Germany and The Alpine Countries

17 Background Information on Germany  Summary  Since the Middle Ages, Germany and France have been the dominant countries in West-Central Europe. Both are large and prosperous with hardworking people and good farmland. The two countries have often been at war, but today they are partners in building a cooperative European Union.  After a history of division and two world wars, Germany is now a unified country.  German culture, known for its contributions to music, literature, and science, is growing more diverse.  Germany today has Europe’s largest economy, but eastern Germany faces challenges.  The Alpine Countries reflect German culture and have strong economies based on tourism and services.

18 Germany & the Alpine countries  Early History  Tribes from northern Europe settled in the area.  The Romans called this area Germania, after one of the tribes.  In 1871, Prussia the strongest state, united Germany.

19 War and Division  War and Division  Germany lost WWI.  The payments for war damages and a major depression hurt the economy.  Adolf Hitler became a leader with promises to restore Germany to its glory.  WWII began  At the end, Germany was divided between the Soviet Union in the East, and USA, Britain, and France in the West.  Even the capital of Berlin was divided with the Berlin Wall. The walls purpose was to prevent East Germans from fleeing to West Berlin.

20 Reunited Germany  Reunited Germany  US helped West Germany rebuild quickly.  Soon it became an economic power.  East Germany had slower growth and limited freedoms for its citizens.  In the late 1980s, Communist governments began collapsing.  1989, Germans began tearing down the Berlin Wall.  In 1990, East and West Germany reunited.

21 Culture  Culture  Most people speak German and are ethnic Germans.  Martin Luther, a German monk, helped start the Reformation in 1571  Religious reform movement away from the traditional Roman Catholic faith.  Many Germans in north are Protestant. In the South, most are Catholic. In eastern Germany, fewer Germans have religious ties due Communist past.  Religious festivals are still popular (Christmas, Lent) but local festivals are enjoyed, too. (Oktoberfest – celebrates food and drink in Munich)

22 Culture  Culture  Famous contributions to arts and sciences:  Johann Sebastian Bach  Ludwig van Beethoven  Johann Wolfgang von Goethe  Contributions in chemistry, engineering, medicine and physics.

23 The Alpine Countries  Austria  Once the center of one of the most powerful empires in Europe.  The Habsburg family ruled the Netherlands, Spain and much of Germany, Italy and Eastern Europe.  Habsburg’s were on the losing side of WWI, after WWI Austria became a Republic. Today it is a modern, industrialized nation.  Vienna- capital and largest city  Was once the center of the Habsburg’s rule but now is the center of music and fine arts.  Prosperous economy  Banking  Tourism  Switzerland  Independent country since the 1600’s, today it is a Federal Republic.  Located in the Alps, helped the country to stay neutral for centuries.  Swiss speak many languages, main languages are French and German.  Very high standard of living  Famous for its banks, watches, chocolate and cheeses.

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