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Vietnam War 1957 - 1975.

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Presentation on theme: "Vietnam War 1957 - 1975."— Presentation transcript:

1 Vietnam War

2 Timeline 1883 - France takes control of Vietnam, divided into 3 parts
WWII - Japan controlled all of Vietnam Ho Chi Minh returns to Vietnam from China to fight Japan for Vietnam Aug Japan is defeated in WWII Domino Effect - the U.S. worried if Vietnam fell to communism the surrounding countries would fall

3 Timeline continued Vietminh - revolutionaries fighting for freedom, started by Ho Chi Minh U.S. supported Minh when they were fighting against Japan Sep after WWII France moves into Vietnam to regain control of Vietnam U.S. begins to support France against Ho Chi Minh Vietminh defeat France at Dien Bien Phu

4 Geneva conference Decisions made at Geneva (1954):
1. Vietnam would be divided in 1/2 at the 17th parallel North Vietnam - communist under Ho Chi Minh - supported by China and USSR South Vietnam - Republic of Vietnam under Ngo Dinh Diem - supported by the U.S. 2. Set up national elections to be held in 1956, but they never happened because they knew Ho Chi Minh would win

5 More on timeline many South Vietnamese civilians revolt against Diem Vietcong - (National Liberation Front) - civilians living in the south that supported the Vietminh, didn’t like Diem They lived a seemingly normal life but would fight against the South and the U.S. whenever they could, even though they lived in the South

6 Last of Timeline Southern Generals take over S. Vietnam, Diem is murdered, no leadership in the South emerges Nguyen Van Thieu - elected President of the south until 1975 Saigon falls to communists

7 Presidential involvement in Vietnam
Harry Truman - ( ) - supported Minh to fight the Japanese, began to support the French after WWII Dwight Eisenhower - ( ) - Geneva Accord, sent aid and supplies to support the South (Diem) John Kennedy - ( ) - sent advisors, some military support

8 More on Presidents LBJ - ( ) - ground forces arrive, acknowledge involvement publicly, U.S. begins bombing strikes on the North He wanted to control communism - containment Richard Nixon - ( ) - bombing continues, peace talks begin Gerald Ford - ( ) - Saigon falls and the U.S. leaves , North and South Vietnam reunify

9 Vietnam War Ho Chi Minh trail - trail through Laos and Cambodia that troops in North Vietnam would use to infiltrate the South Gulf of Tonkin incident - Aug. 2, 1964 - U.S. destroyer the Maddox was attacked by North Vietnam torpedo boats - U.S. fires back and calls in the C. Turner Joy for reinforcement - LBJ orders air strikes against the NVA (Vietminh)

10 More on Vietnam Gulf of Tonkin resolution - after the incident in the Gulf the Senate passed this resolution allowing the President to take any means necessary to prevent further aggression. Some say the Gulf attacks never happened 1964 election - LBJ v. Barry Goldwater Goldwater wanted more action in Vietnam LBJ wins the election

11 Action in Vietnam Operation Rolling Thunder bombing raids on North Vietnam and the Ho Chi Minh trail Largest operation of the war Approx. - 92,000 Vietnamese killed during this campaign and 850 Americans Started after the NVA attacked a U.S. base in the South Start of U.S. troops in full combat against the NVA

12 More action in Nam William Westmoreland - Supreme commander of U.S. troops in Vietnam Time - Man of the Year Khe Sahn - U.S. marine base held under siege by the NVA for 77 days Operation Niagara - bombing raids outside of Khe Sahn to protect the base

13 U.S. advantages and Disadvantages in the War
Advantages - Better weapons, technology Disadvantages - they knew the land better, ambush tactics, more people and all they knew was war

14 Fighting techniques U.S. and Southern troops (pro - American)
1 Air raids - peppering the area 2 Napalm - fire bombs 3 Search and Destroy 4 Agent Orange - defoilant that killed vegetation so they could see the enemy

15 Taking a hill/ communication network in Vietnam
Walk until fired upon Pull back and call in air support Pepper the area Napalm On the move again Repeat


17 NVA and Vietcong techniques
Ambush Boobie traps - trip wires, pits, dynamite Attack and release - hit and hide in tunnels Terrorizing civilians in the South

18 Terms Charlie / Chuck - VietCong Purple Heart - wounded
Silver Star - bravery Bronze Star - heavy battle Hawk - supporter of the war Dove - those who were opposed Bob Dylan - singer (opposed the war, supported rights of African - Americans) Counter culture - hippies, doves

19 My Lai Village in South Vietnam attacked by American soldiers
200 women and children killed

20 End of the War Richard Nixon- Eisenhower’s VP
Elected President in 1968 Henry Kissinger - Nixon’s foreign policy advisor for the War Nixon Doctrine - Nixon’s policy, looked to reduce American obligations in the war Mao ZeDung - China’s communist leader

21 U.S. foreign relations Détente - relaxation of tension between the 2 super powers (U.S. and U.S.S.R.) SALT - strategic arms limitation treaty restricted the types and numbers of nuclear warheads and missiles each country could produce Vietnamization training the S. V. to take more responsibility for fighting the war April Nixon announces the U.S. would attack Laos and Cambodia (Ho Chi Minh trail)

22 End of occupation January 1973 - cease fire signed
March troops leave Troop occupation ( ) 58,000 - Americans dead 300,000 - wounded Millions of Vietnamese killed Nov War Powers Act passed - President couldn’t send troops into a war situation more than 60 days without approval

23 View of resisters Reasons people gave for not agreeing with the war:
1. Morally wrong 2. U.S. imperialism - idea that we control others 3. Violent extension of U.S. domination in the world 4. Waste of men, money and energy 5. Violates the rights of Vietnamese 6. Capitalistic war - people looking to make money 7. Economic exploitation

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