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J. Jill Heatley DVM MS DABVP (Avian), DACZM Associate Professor, Zoological Medicine College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences Texas A&M University,

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Presentation on theme: "J. Jill Heatley DVM MS DABVP (Avian), DACZM Associate Professor, Zoological Medicine College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences Texas A&M University,"— Presentation transcript:

1 J. Jill Heatley DVM MS DABVP (Avian), DACZM Associate Professor, Zoological Medicine College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences Texas A&M University, College Station

2 Gray... Western - Sciurus griseus Eastern – Sciuris carolinensis Arizona...Sciurus arizonensis Tassel-eared...Sciurus aberti Fox Eastern Fox....Sciurus niger Apache Fox.....Sciurus apache Tamiascirus American Red.....Tamiasciurus hudsonicus Chickaree......Tamiasciurus douglasi Flying Squirrels – Northern Southern and Glaucomys volans

3 Order Rodentia Family Sciuridae All continents Except Antarctica, Australia 50 genera, 273 species Subfamily Cyonomys – Prairie Dogs Spermophilus – Ground squirrels Marmota – Marmots Ammospermophilus – Antelope Squirrels Tamias – Chipmunks Tamiasciurus – Chickarees Sciurus – Tree Squirrels Glaucomys – New World flying squirrels

4 Expanding urban communities Parks, neighborhoods Bird feeders Nature Vacation Exotic Pets Research Rehabilitation Hunting

5 Bacterial Fungal Parasitic Viral Prion Literature review

6 Toxoplasma gondii Intermediate not definitive host Cryptosporidium parvum Eastern gray squirrel Chipmunk Red squirrel California Gray squirrel Hymenolepis nana Dwarf tapeworm of hamsters Human enteric disease Praziquantel Mange in squirrels is generally notoedric or demodectic and not transmissable to humans

7 ZoonosesSquirrel Disease Lyme Disease Epidemic Typhus Tularemia Plague Leptospirosis Rat Bite fever Squirrel Bite fever Streptobaccillus moniliformis Spirillum minus Red legged ground squirrel Xerus erythropus Nigeria Campylobacter spp. Salmonellosis Pasteurella multocida Red squirrel Yersinia pseudotuberculosis White tailed antelope squirrel Citellus lecurus Yersinia enterocolitica Grey squirrel

8 Isolated in 1912 Plague like disease of rodents Plague foci search Bacterium tularense Francisella tularensis Tulare county of origin, CA Ground squirrels Spermophilus beecheyii Zoonoses Sciurus carolinensis Infant Bite Arkansas Prairie Dog (BT Cyonomys ludovicianus) Titer positive 3 y with bite Fox Squirrel Skinned/dressed Magee JS et al. Tularemia trans by Squirrel Bite. Pediatric Infect Dis J.1989Feb8(2): Avashia SB at al Emerging Infec Dis 10(3) March 2004 Kirkwood T. Tularemia from the Fox Squirrel JAMA 1931; 96(12);

9 Multiple species Isolations - serovars Gray squirrel - ballum Fox squirrel - grippotyphosa Zoonosis Leptospira kirschneri Southern Flying squirrel Glaucomys volans Exported to Japan yo males

10 Borrelia burgdorferi sensu latu Spirochetal bacteria Most common tick borne disease Debilitating chronic infection Tick intermediate Reservoirs Western Gray squirrel Eastern chipmunk Tamias straitus – eastern & upper midwestern US Persistent infection, no clinical signs Ixodes scapularis European reservoir potential Gray squirrel Sciurus carolinensis European tree squirrel – S. vulgaris

11 Bacterium Rickettsia prowazekii Clinical Signs Fever, Headache, Muscle pain Rash – trunk spreads to extremities Doesnt involve the palms or soles (cf RMSF) Mort ~ 40% if untreated Primary Vector Human Body Louse

12 Sporadic cases in Eastern US since 1970s Most cases in winter when squirrels nest in attics All non fatal, humans faster recovery with antibiotics Flying squirrels Glaucomys volans Handled, squirrels nests, pets in home Capable reservoirs Transient inapparent infection Squirrel human transmission unknown Sucking lice (Neohematopinus sciuropteri) Fleas transmit to squirrels in lab Direct contact, inhalation of dried squirrel excretions bites of squirrel ectoparasites Sucking lice Flea

13 Bacterium - Yersinia pestis Complex flea rodent cycle Sylvatic reservoir Human clinical signs Severe disease Fatality rate > 50% if untreated Rare - Dozen cases / year Semiarid West New Mexico Arizona Colorado California

14 Periodic plague outbreaks Flea vector (Flea control!!!) CS: nonspecific: lethargy, depression, respiratory distress, lymphadenopathy, anorexia Serologic testing More susceptible rodent hosts Prairie dogs Known reservoir Ground squirrels Fox squirrels Human exposure occurs during outbreaks Flea bites Direct contact w nonrodent hosts Trend of eastward expansion Epizootic fox squirrels central Texas

15 Dermatophytosis Sporotrichosis Sporothrix schenckii Unknown Sciurid, not captured Bite 1.5 months earlier in the park Severe arm lesion responded to 3 months of antibiotic and antifungal therapy Lymphocutaneous Sporotrichosis Associated with a Squirrel Bite: Case Report and Review PS Saravanakumar, P Eslami FA Zar Clinical Infectious Diseases, 23(3)3 Sep 1996) Clinical Infectious Diseases

16 Dermatomycoses, Tinea, Ringworm May accompany parapox fibromas Systemic Phycomycosis Circular shape, scaly raised border Patchy hair loss Neck, head,armpits, abdomen Skin reddening, thin layer serous exudate, crusts, skin nodules Hair broken off at skin surface, Fine stubble broken hair Lesions Etiologies Lewis et al. JWD Oct 1975 Urban Gray squirrel mycology

17 Trichophyton mentagrophytes Mucor Candida albicans Microsporum gypseum, Scopulaiopsis brevicaulis Microsporum cookei Systemic Phycomycosis Dermatiaceous Fungi – pigmented Phaeoannellomyces wernecklii Damp weather conditions Prevalence > 50%

18 Rule out Alopecia Sciurus carolinensis Glaucomys volans Dietary, heritable? Congenital Alopecia Dermatophytosis Louse Bite Lesions Notoedric Mange Larval Harvest Mite Lesions Histology Fungal organisms in superficial skin, in and around hairs History, Lesions Direct examination Culture Identify specific fungus Zoonotic Young animals more commonly affected One researcher developed lesions after handling squirrels Use gloves, wash with soap after handling

19 White et al. Micro Study of Urban Gray squirrel 1975 JAVMA 167 Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus Gray squirrels serologically positive UK 4/19 Snowshoe hare virus (SSHV) Arboviruses West Nile Virus Western Equine Encephalitis Lacross Virus Eastern Equine Encephalitis Rabies Gray squirrel No human cases associated with squirrel bite Monkeypox Virus Encephalomyocarditis virus

20 Alphaviruses, Togaviridae WEE rare disease in people Lacrosse Virus, EEE (mort 50%), VEE rare serious disease Mosquito vector Hosts (Black tailed jack rabbit, White footed mouse?, ?) Lacrosse Encephalitis – Tree squirrels and chipmunks primary amplifying hosts WEE Viremia – Gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis), California ground squirrels, San Joachin antelope ground squirrels, Aggressive, bite people, Usu fatal, may survive overwinter Richardsons ground squirrels (Spermophilus richardsonii) contaminated urine, cannibalism Experimental Infection Weak, depressed, ataxic, limb paralysis prior to death Some became hyperexcitable Brain, brainstem Necrosis & edema EEE - Gray squirrels Peripheral inoculation: Encephalitis & death VEE – Significant viremia, > 50% mort Mexican ground squirrel - Spermophilus mexicanus Gray squirrel

21 Bunyaviridae Variant of the La Crosse virus Encephalitis occasional - NY, Eastern Canada Antibodies Experimental infection ground squirrels Symptomless viremia Artic ground squirrels Spermophilus parryii Golden mantled ground squirrels Spermophilus lateralis Yellow-pine chipmunks Eutamias amoenus Red squirrels

22 Encephalitis virus Fox squirrel (Sciurus niger) Seroconversion late summer early fall None in urine, fleas Exp: feces and oral cavity Experimental infection suggests amplifying host High seroprevalence Western gray squirrel (S. griseus) Eastern gray squirrel (S. carolinensis) 3/36 live neurologic tree squirrels viremia similar to WNV-infected birds. Most squirrels no virus in serum S. carolinensis not amplifying hosts low viremias, lack of mortality Low seroprevalence 2% Useful as sentinels High seroprevalence

23 Tick borne encephalitis flavivirus complex 1956 epidemic of people and monkeys Fever, hypotension hepatomegaly, hemorrhage/neuro/bronchopneumonia recovery/late fever Southern india m radius Striped palm squirrels Funambulus tristriatus Antibodies Viremic infective for Ticks

24 Orthopox virus Broad primate host range includes humans Fever rash resembles small pox Low mortality high morbidity Infection via direct contact Main host African tree squirrels Tree squirrels Heliosciurus rufobrachium H. gambianus Rope Squirrels Funisciuris anerythrus F. lemniscatus Prairie dogs Poorly competent host Effective transmitters for veterinary staff

25 Monkey Pox Humans 1-10% mortality Contact, respiratory droplets CS: fever, cough, conjunctivitis, lymphadenopathy, nodular rash No treatment Strict biosecurity, humane euthanasia CDC website Final rule prohibits capture, offers to capture, transport, sale, barter, exchange, distribution, or release of a listed animal into the environment. Prairie dogs (Cynomys sp.) African Tree squirrels (Heliosciurus sp.), Rope squirrels (Funisciurus sp.), Gambian giant pouched rats Cricetomys sp.

26 Encephalomyocarditis Virus Genus cardiovirus AKA: Mengovirus Worldwide/Ubiquitous disease of rodents Human: suspected neurologic disease Now thought to be asymptomatic Isolated from feces/intestinal contents Sciurus spp. Red squirrels Wild squirrels (Vizoso et al 1964) Where/ how viral persistence between epidemics unclear Acute death due to cardiac necrosis Important for zoo collection, elephants Chimpanzee, Orangutan Poorly infectious for people

27 Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) burgoo Squirrel brain stew 5 patients 56-78y Unrelated, Different towns Rural Kentucky Dont eat brain unless you want be a zombie

28 Squirrels are harbor a plethora of zoonoses Sentinel Is it the cute factor? Thanks for your attention

29 Field Manual of Wildlife Diseases in the Southeastern United States, 3 rd ed Davidson, WR Zoo & Wild Animal Medicine 5 th ed Sainsbury, Rodent Chapter Infectious Diseases of Wild Mammals ES Wiliams, IK Barker Smithsonian Museum of Natural History North American Mammals

30 Saravanakuma PS Eslami P Zar FA Lymphocutaneous sporotrichosis associated with a squirrel bite: case report and review. Clin Infect Dise 1996 sep 23(3) 647-8

31 AKA Squirrel Pox Squirrel Pox Virus 1953 Leporipoxvirus Related to Shopes Fibroma of rabbits Range Range: Maryland, New York, Virginia, Michigan, North Carolina, Ontario Host Gray squirrel Fox Squirrel Red squirrel Significant cause of decline Experimental infections Woodchucks, rabbits

32 Lesions Limited to skin Metastasis to the lungs, liver, kidney, and lymph nodes has been reported. Secondary infection Vision obstruction Raised flattened nodules Light colored, little fur 1/16- 1 inch diameter Single or wide dissemination Epizootic Lesions on the eyelid Swelling, discoloration, necrosis of leg or foot Clinical Signs Most infections self limiting, spontaneously regress Debilitation, emaciation, death Rare epizootics Morbidity, mortality many squirrels Florida

33 Parapoxvirus: Grey & Red Squirrels Mosquito spread

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