Presentation on theme: "Rodentia Gnawing Mammals - Andrew Marmo. Skull Characteristics A pair of upper and lower incisors Single open root Continuously growing Enamel on."— Presentation transcript:
Skull Characteristics A pair of upper and lower incisors Single open root Continuously growing Enamel on outside and exposed dentine on inside Diastema between incisors and premolars
Order Rodentia Largest order of mammals with over 2000 species 40% of mammals are rodents Found on all continents except for Antarctica Size and breeding cycle may be the reason for their success.
Common House Mouse (Mus musculus) Reach sexual maturity at about 4 weeks of age. Breed year round 6 mice can turn into a family of 60 in 3 months
Cricetidae Includes true hamsters, voles, and New World rats and mice. Almost 600 species Second largest family of mammals. -Largest in North America
Deer Mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) Inhabit nearly all types of land in PA Eat seeds, berries, mushrooms, beetles, slugs, and spiders. Name refers to their coats resemblance to a deer.
Southern Red-Backed Vole (Clethrionomys gapperi) Found in much of upland PA Favors cool damp forests with hemlocks, mossy rocks, and stumps Climbs into low trees
Muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus) Mainly found in wetlands Can stay submerged for up to 17 minutes Feed mostly on aquatic vegetation Builds dome shaped huts
Castoridae Beaver Castor canadensis Largest rodent in NA Can way up to 70 lbs. One of the few species that pair for life Estimated 30,000 in PA. (PA GC)
Erethizontidae Porcupines Erethizon dorsatum Second largest rodent in PA Top speed is 2 miles per hour Den in caves, rock crevices, hollow logs, and trees
Sciuridae Squirrels Includes tree squirrels, ground squirrels, chipmunks, marmots, prairie dogs, flying squirrels, and woodchucks.
Eastern Gray Squirrel Sciurus carolinensis Can run as fast as 14 mph and jump 6 feet between trees Black coloration (melanism) is fairly common Dens in tree cavities and leaf nests
Fox Squirrel Sciuris niger PA is northern extent of its range Larger than Gray Squirrel Rare in deep forests, prefers park- like woods
Red Squirrel Tamiasciurus hudsonicuas Prefers mature forests of white pine and hemlock Eat everything from pine seeds to the young of birds Store pinecones, nuts, and fruits in caches called middens
Southern Flying Squirrel Glaucomys volans More common than northern flying squirrel in PA Can sail up to 40 feet Most predaceous of the tree squirrels
Eastern Chipmunk Tamias striatus Active in the day (diurnal) Prefer open deciduous woods Become torpid in the winter, respiration falls from 60 to less than 20 breaths per minute