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Legislative Update March 28, 2012 Cancers Impact on Minorities in Texas David Lakey, M.D. Commissioner Texas Department of State Health Services.

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Presentation on theme: "Legislative Update March 28, 2012 Cancers Impact on Minorities in Texas David Lakey, M.D. Commissioner Texas Department of State Health Services."— Presentation transcript:

1 Legislative Update March 28, 2012 Cancers Impact on Minorities in Texas David Lakey, M.D. Commissioner Texas Department of State Health Services

2 Life Expectancy in Texas Total and by Race (1989 – 2009) 2 Life Expectancy in Years

3 10 Leading Causes of Death in Texas (2009) 3

4 Actual Causes of Death Shaped by Behavior Chronic Disease in Texas 2007, DSHS 4

5 Cancer Facts In 2012, more than 110,000 Texans will likely be diagnosed with cancer. Over 39,000 Texans will die from cancer. The total annual cost associated with cancer in the state is estimated to be $28 billion. –This includes medical care, as well as indirect costs due to lost productivity from illness and premature death. 5

6 Cancer in Texas Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer deaths, killing an average of 9,641 Texans (2005 – 2009). Breast cancer is the most common cancer among Texas women. –Only 70% of women age 40+ have a mammogram in the past 2 years. Cervical cancer is one of the most preventable and detectable through regular screening. –Only 76% of women 18+ were screened in the past 3 years. In Texas, colorectal cancer is the 3 rd most common cancer in men & women & the 2 nd leading cause of death. –Only 53% of Texans age 50+ have had colorectal screenings. –The CDC says 60% of colorectal cancers could be prevented through screening. 6

7 Focus on Four Cancer Disparities Lung Cancer Breast Cancer Cervical Cancer Colorectal Cancer 7

8 Lung Cancer Incidence Rate by Sex & Race/Ethnicity Texas

9 Lung Cancer Mortality Rate by Sex & Race/Ethnicity Texas

10 Lung Cancer Disparities Cigarette smoking is the number one risk factor for lung cancer, causing about 90% of all U.S. lung cancers. Lung cancer was diagnosed in black males at a rate almost 1/3 greater than that of white males. As with lung cancer incidence, black men also have higher mortality rates, at a rate 1/3 greater than non-Hispanic white men. Among Texas women, white women were diagnosed with and died from lung cancer at rates higher than other race/ethnic groups in Texas. 10

11 Adult Smokers Race and Ethnicity 11

12 Female Breast Cancer Incidence Rates by Race/Ethnicity Texas

13 Female Breast Cancer Mortality Rates by Race/Ethnicity Texas

14 Breast Cancer Disparities Even though black women were diagnosed at a lower rate than white women: –Black women died from breast cancer at a rate 50% higher than whites Possible Explanations: –Lack of health care coverage, –Less access to mammography, and –Potentially unequal access to improvements in cancer treatment. Research shows that black women are more likely to develop aggressive breast tumors at a younger age. –These aggressive tumors are associated with poorer survival. 14

15 Cervical Cancer Incidence Rate by Race/Ethnicity Texas

16 Cervical Cancer Mortality Rate by Race/Ethnicity Texas

17 Cervical Cancer Disparities While black women had lower cervical cancer incidence rates than Hispanic women –They had a slightly higher cervical cancer mortality rate than Hispanic women. The higher rates in Hispanics and blacks are attributed to lack of: –Screening due to unequal access to medical care, and –Cultural and economic barriers to screening. The National Immunization Survey-Teen, 2010 estimates that 47.5% of Texans, ages 13-17, received more than one dose of the HPV vaccine. –The national number is 48.7% 17

18 Colorectal Cancer Incidence Rates by Sex and Race/Ethnicity Texas

19 Colorectal Cancer Mortality Rates by Sex and Race/Ethnicity Texas

20 Colorectal Cancer Disparities Diagnosed in both black males and females at a rate more than 1/3 greater than that of whites. Evidence suggests that biological and genetic predisposition may contribute, as well as behavioral factors, such as low-fiber high-fat diets. Black Texas men and women died from colorectal cancer 2/3 more often than whites. Most colorectal cancer deaths can be prevented through routine screening and early diagnosis. Blacks are less likely to complete colorectal cancer screening, resulting in later stage diagnosis. Lack of access to screening services and health care coverage may contribute to higher mortality rates. 20

21 Reducing Disparities Prevention and early detection are the best protection. Higher screening rates are associated with higher education levels, availability and use of health care, and length of U.S. residence. 21

22 Recommended Screenings The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommended screenings: –Breast Cancer: Women aged be screened by mammography every 2 years –Cervical Cancer: Women aged be screened by Pap smear every 3 years –Colorectal Cancer: regular screening of both men and women aged by testing or colonoscopy Breast, cervical and colorectal cancer screening are now covered in: –Medicare, and –In newly offered private insurance plans. 22

23 Texas Cancer Registry (TCR) The TCR collects information, such as types of cancers and locations within the body, extent of cancer, first course treatment, length of survival, and patient characteristics. Over 248,000 cancer reports were received in 2009 from over 500 reporters. Meets the National Program of Central Cancer Registries, CDC high quality data standards and is Gold Certified by the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries. It is the 4th largest cancer registry in the United States and is recognized by the CDC as 1 of only 10 Comparative Effectiveness Research Specialized Registries in the nation. The TCR assists local, state, national public health officials and policy makers in measuring the Texas cancer burden, comprehensive cancer control efforts, health disparities, progress in prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and survivorship. 23

24 Texas Breast & Cervical Cancer Control Program (BCCS) The BCCS goal is to reduce mortality from breast cancer and cervical cancer in Texas. BCCS offers clinical breast examinations, mammograms, pelvic examinations, and Pap tests at no or low-cost to eligible women throughout Texas. Since 1991, the BCCS program has screened 288,434 women for breast or cervical cancer. Of the 35,911 women seen during the program year, 14,601 screenings were provided with a total of 325 breast cancers detected. Of 16,295 cervical screenings were provided through BCCS contractors, 5,488 precancerous conditions & 53 invasive cervical cancers detected Access to the state Medicaid program is available for treatment if breast or cervical cancer are diagnosed. 24

25 The Texas Comprehensive Cancer Control Program Texas Comprehensive Cancer Control Program (CCCP) –Engages in activities that include minority and underserved populations cancer issues. –CCCP stakeholders work to reach minorities & the underserved. –A Del Rio cancer coalition (CCCP provides technical assistance) conducts a minority awareness campaign along the border. –The Cancer Alliance of Texas (CAT), includes organizations focused on disadvantaged populations. –CAT membership includes the American Cancer Society, LIVESTRONG, UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, and Susan G. Komen that focus on health disparities, underserved populations, access to clinical trials, and environmental approach initiatives. 25

26 Smoke Free Ordinances, Texas 26

27 Tobacco Funding Tobacco prevention/cessation funding reduced 44% However, DSHS is actively working toward mitigating this reduction –DSHS has received a $3M grant over 3 years from the Cancer Prevention Research Institute of Texas (CPRIT) –DSHS will continue to provide Texas Quitline telephone counseling services and Nicotine Replacement Therapy to priority populations at high risk for tobacco addiction o This includes the uninsured, treatment for addictions to alcohol or drugs, and individuals referred to the Quitline by their clinician o DSHS estimates grants funds will provide services to ~7000 callers annually, of whom 70% will receive counseling and 30% will receive NRT 27

28 What Helps Smokers Quit? Texas Quitline YES QUIT Comprehensive Community Coalition Intensive Interventions supported by: –Mass Media Campaign in 15 of 254 Texas Counties –Resulted in 8 times more calls to the Quitline than in counties with no interventions. Medicaid Funding for Quitline and Rx Benefit for Cessation Medication 28

29 Conclusion Health disparities in cancer incidence and mortality can be reduced by 2 key strategies: –Prevention Smoking cessation Healthy diets Regular exercise –Early detection Increased awareness about the need for screenings Improved access to recommended screenings 29

30 Thank You!

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