Presentation on theme: "Taken from Burke County High School"— Presentation transcript:
1Taken from Burke County High School .Paradox is a statement or a group of statements. Oxymoron is a combination of two contradictory terms. 2.Paradox consists of a whole sentence or a paragraph. Oxymoron on the other hand comes with only two words that contradicts itself. 3.Paradox is an action that is contradictory and oxymoron is a description of a phrase.Read more: Difference Between Oxymoron and Paradox | Difference Between | Oxymoron vs ParadoxTaken from Burke County High SchoolGHSGT ELA Cram Session
2Types of LiteratureThe two main types of literature on this test are prose and poetry.Prose: consists of a story written in sentences and paragraphs that come from the author’s own imagination.Poetry is set up in groups of lines called stanzas which have a certain rhythm or beat as you read them. Poetry also contains vivid images in very compact language.
4Literary Elements in Fiction CHARACTER A person(s), animal, or natural force appearing in a literary work. PROTAGONIST The main character or hero of a short story. ANTAGONIST A rival or opponent of the hero.
5Basic Story ElementsSetting When and where a story takes place Point of View The vantage point from which the story is told– the relationship of the narrator to the story. Conflict The struggle between different forces in a story Plot The sequence of events in a story that leads to the resolution
7Point of View (POV)First-person is told by a character who uses the first-person pronoun “I”. Third-person (Limited or Omniscient) is the point of view where the narrator uses third-person pronouns such as “he” and “she” to refer to the characters.LIMITED: this perspective is distinct from the omniscient mode in that the reader experiences the story through the senses and thoughts of just one character.OMNISCIENT: this perspective is told from the point of view of a storyteller who plays no part in the story but knows all the facts, including the characters' thoughts.
8Conflict The struggle between different forces in a story. Internal conflict is a mental or emotional struggle that occurs within a character (Man vs. Himself) External conflict is a struggle that occurs between a character and outside forces, which could be another character or the environment. (Man vs. Man, Society, Nature, etc)
9IRONYVerbal irony is when a speaker says one thing but means another, or when a literal meaning is contrary to its intended effect. An example of this is sarcasm.Dramatic irony is when words and actions possess a significance that the listener or audience understands, but the speaker or character does not.Situational irony is when the result of an action is contrary to the desired or expected effect what you expect to happen does not come to pass.
10Writer’s TONETone is a reflection of a writer’s or speaker’s attitude toward a subject of a poem, story, or other literary work. Tone may be communicated through words and details that express particular emotions and that evoke and emotional response from the reader. For example, word choice or phrasing may seem to convey respect, anger, lightheartedness, or sarcasm.
11Flashback & Foreshadowing Flashback is action that interrupts to show an event that happened at an earlier time which is necessary to better understanding. Often flashbacks are presented as a memory of the narrator or of another character.Foreshadowing is the use of hints or clues to suggest what will happen later in literature. Writers use foreshadowing to build their readers’ expectations and to create suspense. This is used to help readers prepare for what is to come.
12THEMETheme is the general idea or insight about life that a writer wishes to express—sometimes referred to “a life lesson.” All of the elements of literary terms contribute to theme. A simple theme can often be stated in a single sentence.
13Poetry consists of imagery, rhythm and rhyme, and figures of speech.
14Types of Poetry LYRIC: An emotional writing focusing on thought and emotion - can consist of a song-like quality.Subdivisions include elegy, ode and sonnet.Lyric poetry does not attempt to tell a story.
15Elegy Ode Sonnet Types of Lyric Poetry An elegy is a mournful, melancholic or plaintive poem, especially a funeral song or a lament for the dead.OdeAn ode is a serious poem of a meditative nature written for a specific occasion or on a particular subject. They are often very formal with elevated language.SonnetA fourteen-line poem usually having conventional rhyme schemes and specific structure.
16Types of Poetry NARRATIVE A poem which tells a story. Includes the subdivision epic, a long story which tells of theheroic ideals of a particular society, and ballad,which generally tell of an event of interest suchas a crime. Ballads were originally intended tobe sung while dancing.
17Narrative Poetry Epics Epics are long, complicated story-poems. They tell of extraordinary deeds by supernaturalheroes and villains.BalladsBallads are part of the oral tradition and tella storythrough song. Their subjects can be heroic,satirical, romantic, or political. They focus on theactions and dialogue of a story—not thecharacters.
18Types of Poetry DRAMATIC Any drama written in verse which is meant to be spoken, usually to tell a story or portray asituation. The majority of dramatic poetry iswritten in blank verse.
19Imagery, Rhythm & RhymeImagery is words or phrases that recreate an experience of a feeling. It usually appeals to one or more of the five senses—sight, sound, smell, taste, or touch.Rhythm is a pattern of sound you hear as the poetry is spoken or read.Rhyme refers to the repetition of sounds or words within lines (internal rhyme) or at the end of lines (end rhyme).
20Iambic Pentamenter The most common rhythm in English poetry. Consists of a line ten syllables long that is accented on every second beat.
21Poetry that Doesn’t Rhyme Blank verse is written in unrhymed iambic pentameter. Whereas, free verse (sometimes referred to free form) is not written in iambic pentameter.Blank VersePractitioners include Christopher Marlowe and William ShakespeareFree VersePractitioners includeWalt Whitman and TS Eliot
22Types of Stanzas Couplet = a two line stanza Triplet = a three line stanzaQuatrain = a four line stanzaQuintet = a five line stanzaSestet = a six line stanzaSeptet = a seven line stanzaOctave = an eight line stanza
23Figures of SpeechFigures of Speech are images that depart from standard wording to achieve a special meaning of effect.
24Poetry SoundsAssonance is the repetition of vowel-sounds within non-rhyming words.Consonance is the repetition of consonant sounds within words.Alliteration is the repetition of same sounds at the start of words.There is an example of all three of these terms in one line of the poem, “The Raven,” written by Edgar Allan Poe:And the silken sad uncertain rustling of each purple curtain Assonance is the repetition of the ur sound in "purple" and "curtain.“ Consonance is the repetition of the s sound within "uncertain" and "rustling.“ Alliteration is the repetition of the s sound at the start of "silken" and "sad.”
25Hyperbole Hyperbole is exaggeration or overstatement. Example: I'm so hungry I could eat a horse. He's as big as a house.
26Simile and Metaphor Simile is the comparison of twounlike things usinglike or as.Example:He eats like a pig.Vines like goldenprisons.Metaphor is the comparison of two unlike things using the verb "to be" and not using like or as as in a simile.Example:He is a pig.
27Onomatopoeia & Personification Onomatopoeia is a word that imitates the sound it represents.Example: splash, wow, gush, kerplunkPersonification is giving human characteristics to something non-human.Example: smiling moon
28Oxymoron Oxymoron is a combination of contradictory or opposite words. Examples:“pretty ugly”“jumbo shrimp”“legally drunk”
29ParadoxParadox is a statement that at first appears false but in reality is true.Example:“Tis better to have loved and lost than never tohave loved at all.”
30American LiteratureUnderstanding the Literary Periods
31Native American Literature Native American (30,000BC-1730AD):Characteristics—focus on the common origin of all things, tribal traditions and rituals, respect for all nature.Types of literature—mostly oral, some written, consisting of ceremonial songs and prayers, historical narratives, and poems.
32The Colonial Period Puritan/Colonial (1620-1730): Characteristics—focus on predestination, plainness in all things.Types of literature—sermons, diaries, journals, narratives, and poetry; fiction or drama was forbidden.
33The Revolutionary Period Characteristics—high regard for reasoning and scientific observation; strong belief in human progress; freedom from restrictive laws and government; moderation and self-control in all things; stress on elegant, ornate style of writing.Types of literature—political writings, almanacs, speeches, essays, and some poetry.
34The Romantic Period Romantic (1800-1840): Characteristics—high regard for inner feelings and emotions; focus on the individual; reverence for the imagination; use of language of the common people.Types of literature—poetry, novels, short stories, sketches, and folklore.
35The Transcendentalist Period Transcendentalism & Anti-Transcendentalism ( ):Characteristics—(T) reverence for nature; happiness comes from individualism and self-reliance; (AT) critical of optimistic views; human nature a mixture of good and evil.Types of literature—essays, novels, short stories, and poetry.
36Realism & Naturalism Realism & Naturalism (1855-1918): Characteristics—(R) expression of life as it is actually lived; factual description of ordinary characters and events; regionalism or local color; focus on dialect, customs, and characters of a particular region; (N) heredity, environment, and economics determine one’s destiny; nature as a brutal force; influence of scientific method.Types of literature—stories, novels, poetry, travel books, songs, and spirituals.
37The Modern Period Modern Age (1918-present): Characteristics—opposition to dehumanizing trends in modern life; short stories with a more open form that stress mood and character rather than plot; loss of idealism due to war; experimental forms of poetry--free verse, imagism, and confessional poetry; rise in African-American heritage, culture, and concerns.
39Literal Understanding Literal understanding refers to information that is directly stated in a passage.A main idea is the basic topic of a passage. It is often stated directly at the beginning of a passage. Sometimes it can be stated at the end, and, occasionally, it may not be stated at all.A supporting detail expands or clarifies the main idea of a passage. Since the supporting details develop the main idea, there are usually several. They may explain the main idea by cause-effect examples, sequence, or comparing and contrasting.
40Inferential Understanding Inferential understanding is information not directly stated in a passage. You may be asked to make various types of inferences—reading between the lines, an educated guess—about a passage.These inferences will take the form of (1) implied main idea—main idea that is not stated directly; (2) conclusion—forming a judgment or opinion based on what is stated; or (3) prediction—applying information from a passage to a new situation.
41PropagandaPropaganda is information that tries to falsely influence your opinions or feelings. It is found in television commercials, newspaper ads and editorials, political speeches, and everyday conversations too.Continue for examples . . .
42Propaganda: Testimonials (1) testimonials—a commonly used technique in which famous persons endorse a product even though they may not be qualified experts.Example(s):Michael Jordan eats Wheaties.Sarah Jessica Parker states in a commercial that Preference hair color has better conditioners.
43Propaganda: Plain Folks (2) plain folks—a technique which persuades us to think or act a certain way because other people are doing the same thing.Example(s):Everyone is having sex before marriage so it must be OK.The cool kids wear Polo and Tommy Hilifiger.
44Propaganda: Transfer(3) transfer—a technique in which we connect our feelings about something to another unrelated thing (often symbols like flags, respected leaders, or historical figures are used).Example(s):The Statue of Liberty represents Liberty Insurance so people will respect the company’s products.A political candidate gives a speech with the American flag in the background so people will trust in what he is saying.
45Propaganda: Snob Appeal (4) snob appeal—a high social status is the reward for thinking or acting a certain way.Example(s):Uncommon, unusual, unlike the rest – Avanti!The height of fashion is a Coach purse.
46Propaganda: Glittering Generality (5) glittering generality—a general claim with no proof to support it.Example(s):New, improved Speed Hair Spray!Vote for a future of progress and prosperity.
47Writer’s PURPOSEPurpose refers to why an author writes. Readers can better understand written material when they can determine the reason an author writes.Four common purposes for writing are: (1) narrative—tells a story through a series of unrelated events; (2) description—recreates a person, place, or thing through words that appeal to the five senses; (3) expository—presents information about a topic, usually through facts or examples; and (4) persuasion—urges an audience to do something or accept an opinion.
48Types of Writing Type of Writing Examples Narration “The Time I Wrecked my New Car”“Falling in Love for the First Time”Description“The Beach at Sunset”“My Grandmother’s Hands”Exposition“Tips for Conserving Water at Home”“How to Change a Tire”Persuasion“Homeless People Need Homes!”Why We Should Raise the Minimum Wage!”
49Writer’s PATTERNFour common patterns writers use are: (1) climactic—sometimes this pattern is called order of importance because the writer starts with the least important details and ends with the most important details to make a point; (2) comparison/contrast—shows similarities or differences between two ideas or things; (3) cause-effect—cause refers to the reason for an action whereas effect is the result of an action; and (4) subordination—helps us see the logical relationship between facts by using transitions.Pattern means how a writer organizes the details of a passage. These details will follow a certain pattern in explaining the main idea.
50Organization: Climatic LeastImportantMostImportantMostImportantLeastImportantKey Words:First in additionSecond nextThird thenFinally most of allAlso worst of allExamples:Ranking Household ExpensesMost/Least Favorite Class
51Organization: Comparison/Contrast AlikeDifferCompareSimilarUnlikeSameOn the other handEquallyButResemblesHoweverAlikeDifferentExamples:How My Mom and Dad are Alike (Comparison)How My Mom and Dad are Different (Contrast)
52Organization: Cause/Effect ReasonResultBecauseAffectSourceConsequenceBasisOutcomeExamples:Why Earthquakes HappenHow Earthquakes Affect California
53Organization: Subordination Subordination helps us see logical relationships between facts; the relationship is made clearer by subordinating one idea to another.Key Words for SubordinationaftersoifbecauseassinceunlesswhichbeforewhereasthoughalthoughwhenthatwhileuntilExamples:Before we left for vacation, we asked out neighbors to watch the house.Americans want to lower taxes so that more of us can pay our bills.If you pass the final, you will pass your English class.
54Logic and FallaciesLogic refers to reasoning writers use to communicate their ideas. Unfortunately, writers can sometimes make errors in reasoning or fallacies.
55Elements of Logic: Sequence Certain questions on sequence will ask you to organize a group of sentences into a logical sequence of events. These events would then lead to a final concluding sentence.Example:Organize the following sentences into a sequence of events that will lead to this conclusion: All the animals sought refuge from the fury of the storm.The pines swayed and branches feel from trees.There was a sudden calm and the air was heavy.Black, ominous clouds gathered overhead.Birds screeched and dogs barked as the wind intensified.A. 3, 2, 4, 1 C. 2, 3, 1, 4B. 2, 3, 4, 1 D. 3, 1, 2, 4Since a storm usually begins quietly and then picks up strength, the best answer is B.
56Elements of Logic: Generalizations A generalization is a statement that summarizes or ties together information in a passage. It may be stated directly or it may be inferred from evidence in the passage.Example:Which of the following statements is the best generalization about this passage?The blood carries oxygen from the lungs to each cell in the body. In addition, the blood carries carbon dioxide from the cells to the lings where it is expelled as a waste product. Nutrients like protein and glucose depend on the blood for their dispersal throughout the body.The blood serves many functions in the bodyProtein and glucose provide food for the blood.No one can survive without a plentiful supply of blood.The blood provides oxygen to every cell in the body.Based on the evidence in the passage, the best answer is A. This generalization summaries what the passage is about.
57Elements of Logic: Not Questions Types of NOT Questions:Which statement would not be useful for establishing a new community center?Which sentence is irrelevant to the persuasive purpose of the writer?The American literary movement least influenced by the Industrial Revolution was…All of the following statements are necessary for supporting this argument except…Which statement is not an example of fallacious (erroneous) reasoning?Tips for Answering “Not” QuestionsRead the question two or three times, eliminating statements that are relevant.The one that is left is your irrelevant statement.Always verify your answer by going back through the passage.Not questions require you to find irrelevant statements in a selection. These irrelevant statements are examples, facts, or ideas not mentioned in a passage.
58Elements of Logic: Argument An argument is a method of logic or reasoning. The writer uses reasons to support a claim or assertion about a topic or issue.Tips for Analyzing an ArgumentIdentify the assertion or claim of the argument. Usually it is the first sentence of the passage. In some kinds or argument, it may appear at the end as the conclusion. Occasionally, you will have to arrive at your own conclusion based on the evidence.Decide whether each reason supports the claim. Some reasons will strongly support the claim –they will be logical and relevant to the argument. However, other reasons may be weak and irrelevant to the argument, providing little support for the assertion or claim.
59Logical FallaciesLogical fallacies are errors in reasoning. They reveal unclear thinking that weakens an argument.Sharp readers should be able to spot fallacies.The four most common fallacies are (1) hasty generalizations, (2) false analogies, (3) circular reasoning, and (4) personal attacks.
60Hasty GeneralizationHasty Generalizations – making an inference or judgment based on insufficient evidence.Example:You arrive to your English class. No one is there, so you decide the class has been cancelled.This judgment is based on too little evidence. The class could be on a field trip, in another room, at a special assembly, etc.
61False AnalogyFalse Analogy – a misleading comparison between two ideas that are not alike in all aspects.Example:High school students got along without cars in the 1940’s; therefore, they can get along without cars today as well.Although there are high school students in both time periods, circumstances are different today. Cars are plentiful, more affordable, and, in most cases, a necessity because of greater distances between home, school, and work.
62Circular ReasoningCircular reasoning – part of a point is used as evidence to support it. This is also called “begging the question”.Example:Cheating on exams is wrong because looking at someone else’s test is bad.No real reasons for cheating are given; the statement merely repeats itself.
63Personal AttacksPersonal Attacks – attacking a person’s life rather than his or her ideas.Example:Carla is always joking with her friends, so how could she run for student council president?!Carla’s sense of humor has little connection with how she would lead students. In fact, it could turn into an asset.
65Reference MaterialsSome of the questions on the test will test your ability to locate specific information found in features of printed materials.Reference MaterialsTable of contentsPrefaceIntroductionTitles and subtitlesGlossaryIndexBibliographyDictionaryAppendixEncyclopediaAlmanac
66Online Research—Websites Pay close attention to the endings of web addresses.When you are looking at websites, it is useful have an understanding of implications of the common suffixes used in the addresses for websites (called URLs). Some suffixes give a clue about the nature of the organization which owns the website..comCommercial site; usually selling something.netNetwork.orgNon-profit organization.govLocal or National Government.eduEducational site
67A non-fictional account of a person's life--usually a celebrity, an Types of BooksAUTOBIOGRAPHYA non-fictional account of a person's life--usually a celebrity, animportant historical figure, or a writer--written by that actual person.BIOGRAPHYA non-fictional account of a person's life written by someone other than who is being highlighted.
68Primary & Secondary Sources Primary SourcesOriginal article or book created by a person or group of peopleExamples include letters, short stories, poems, novels, plays, speeches, films, etc.William Shakepeare’s playRomeo and JulietSecondary SourcesSources that are written about primary sourcesExamples include journal articles, periodicals, encyclopedias, dictionaries, essays, reviews, etc.Rachel Moore’s essay entitled “Courtly Love in William Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet”
69Incorporating Source Materials Copying the information verbatim (word for word)Using quotation marks to identify what has been copiedProviding a source citationDirect QuotesPutting the information in your own wordsShortening the material by condensing it (accurately detail the main idea and supporting details)ParaphrasingShortening the material by condensing it; only providing an overview (omit the details & express only the most important details)Summarizing
71I think Ronald Reagan was a great president of the United States. What’s the Difference?A fact is a true statement that can be proven through observations, research, or statistics.An opinion is a statement of judgment or personal belief. It may or may not be true. Adjectives or the word “I” is often used.FactBefore he became president of the United States, Ronald Reagan was governor of California.OpinionI think Ronald Reagan was a great president of the United States.
72Problem SolvingProblem solving is a technique used to arrive at a solution to some difficulty.
73Problem Solving Strategies BrainstormingGenerating ideas, often with others, to find new ways of solving a problem. Example: Discussing ways to build racial understanding.Creating MetaphorsSolving a problem by connecting it to a similar problem. Example: Visiting a recycling center in Macon to learn how to recycle waste in Waynesboro.Constructing ModelsCreating a chart or design to solve a problem. Example: Making a drawing of the new auditorium for a high school.Role PlayingSolving a problem by acting it out. Example: Rehearsing an upcoming job interview with a friend so you’ll know what to expect.AnalogyFinding pairs of words that are related in some way to a first pair of words. Both sets of words are separated by a double colon. Example:writer : pen :: painter : brush
74A Tip for Solving Analogies Remember: The first two words in an analogy are related to each other in some way. You have to figure out what the relationship is. Then look for a similar relationship in one of your choices.Cause – effect cut : painSize whale : mouseShape balloon : sphereTime Sunday : MondaySimilarities faith : beliefOpposites day : nightPart to a whole branch : treePurpose or use hammer : nailObject to an action football : kickWorker & tool farmer : plowCommon Types of Analogies
76Slang & Standard American English The English we use may be appropriate in one situation but not in another.On the test, you may be asked specific questions about language; make sure you can distinguish between (1) slang, (2) colloquial language, (3) inappropriate English, and (4) Standard American English.
77The Categories & What they Mean SlangInformal language that enjoys brief popularity then generally becomes obsolete. Examples: crib, dis, sike, yo’ mama, word, peace, my bad, etc.Colloquial EnglishWords that are appropriate in dialogue and informal writing but inappropriate in formal writing [contractions, short words, or clichés]. Examples: You bet I’ll be there! He’s in so deep there’s no way out! The apple never falls far from the tree.Inappropriate EnglishContains grammar and usage that do not follow the standard rules for English. Example: I done really bad on that test yesterday! Ain’t no way I’m gonna pass that class.Standard American EnglishEnglish most widely accepted in the United States; it is the language of educated people. Example: I preformed really badly on yesterday’s test. Now there is no way I can pass the class.
78Subject-Verb (S/V) Agreement Grammar rules state that the subject of a sentence MUST agree with the corresponding verb of the sentence. The subject is the word performing the action (verb).The number of the verb is not affected by material that comes between the verb and subject. Determine the real subject of the verb; watch out for intervening words that might mislead you. Remember that the number of the verb is not altered when other nouns are attached to the subject by means of prepositions such as in addition to, together with, as well as, with, along with. Remember also that indefinite pronoun subjects like either, neither, each, one, everyone, no one, somebody take singular verbs.Examples:Immediate settlement of these problems is vital.The cost of replacing the asbestos shingles with cedar shakes was considerable.Mr. Shelton, together with several other division heads, has left.
79Pronoun-Antecedent (P/A) Agreement A pronoun is a word that substitutes for a noun or another pronoun. The word for which a pronoun stands is called its antecedent.Examples:I called Harry, but he didn’t answer.[He substitutes for Harry. Harry is the antecedent of he.]I will wash my car tomorrow.One of my friends is painting his house.To use pronouns effectively and without confusing your reader, you must follow two basic principles: (1) You must establish a clear, easily identified relationship between a pronoun and its antecedent, and (2) You must make the pronoun and its antecedent agree in person, number, and gender.
80Punctuation END PUNCTUATION Examples: offers signals showing the reader where ideas separate and where they blend together. Punctuation may signal contrasting elements or complimentary ones.END PUNCTUATIONExamples:When a tree falls in the woods, it may land in the creek with a splash.If a tree falls in the woods onto a moss bed, does it make a noise?When that tree fell in the woods onto my car, it made a huge noise!End punctuation signals when a sentence is complete. It also signals the type of sentence: statement, with period (.); question, with question mark (?); or exclamation, with an exclamation point (!).
81Punctuation continued COMMASExamples:Plato, one of the creators of philosophical thought, developed the image of reality as shadows on a cave wall.Plato and Aristotle were philosophers in the same age, and they motivated each other to achieving ever greater insights.The philosophy of the “winner takes all” in reality programs seems insane to me, Alexis.Speaking of Plato’s reality as shadows on a wall, its banality is proven by reality shows like “Survivor,” “The Apprentice,” and “I Want to be a Hilton.”The use of commas is varied and valuable. Some comma functions are as follows: signaling restatement; separating two independent clauses when paired with a conjunction; or setting off direct address; and separating simple series items.
82Punctuation continued SEMI COLONSExamples:Ms. Flores said that it was a philosopher who first asked that if a tree falls in the woods does it make a sound if no one is there to hear; this kind of unsolvable question can be used as an ice breaker for people who are getting acquainted.The membership of our philosophy club may surprise most people as it includes Troy Birch, a start basketball player; Jason Simpson, the high dive champion; and Penelope Weaver, our top tennis ace.Semi-colons signal stronger pause than commas but are used in similar situations. They are used to separate independent clauses (without conjunctions), and they separate complex items in a series.
83Punctuation continued COLONSExamples:It is said that History repeats itself: at least if it is not remembered and the lessons are not learned.Spanish-born George Santayana wrote on many topics such as the following: life/death, individuality/society, and knowledge/faith.A colon is a definite break in the flow of a text. Some textual uses include signaling new information to be added or attaching a list of items to the sentence.
85Suppose you are writing an essay about the water quality for residents in your area. Which of the following is the best way to state your research question? A. What is being done to make our environment cleaner? B. Is the water Americans drink becoming more polluted? C. Does the water in this community meet health and safety standards? D. What are the differences between bottled water and tap water?Answer: C. Does the water in this community meet health and safety standards?
86Which sentence would be best to include in a letter to the school board requesting more money for the school band? A. The school band is horrible because the uniforms are out of fashion. B. You should have given us more money because our band is awesome. C. It isn’t our fault that the band is terrible, so you shouldn’t blame us. D. Please consider supporting the band, which is vital to our school.Answer: D. Please consider supporting the band, which is vital to our school.
87Answer: A. Pat has the best grades in the school. Which of the sentences below is written correctly? A. Pat has the best grades in the school. B. Pat has the better grades in the school. C. Pat has like the best grades in the school. D. Pat has the more better grades in the school.Answer: A. Pat has the best grades in the school.
88Of the following, who MOST believed in working hard and living a strict life from the bible? A. Benjamin Franklin B. Spanish Explorers C. James Oglethorpe D. PuritansAnswer: D. Puritans
89How would you improve your understanding of Transcendentalism. A How would you improve your understanding of Transcendentalism? A. Read the works of Henry James B. Research the life of Samuel Clemens C. Read Thoreau’s Walden D. Research Natty Bumppo’s adventures on the American frontierAnswer: C. Read Thoreau’s Walden
90To whom did Gertrude Stein’s “The Lost Generation” refer. A To whom did Gertrude Stein’s “The Lost Generation” refer? A. American “ex patriots” who disappeared in Europe B. Her parents’ generation of wealthy patricians C. Unemployed young Americans living in Europe D. World War I era artists whose experiences hurt themAnswer: A. American “ex patriots” who disappeared in Europe
91Read the following passage and answer the question below. Paula wants to go to the mall; however, she still has chores to finish. She must clean her room, do her laundry, and walk the dog before she will be permitted to go. A. Change the semicolon after mall to a colon B. Remove the comma after laundry C. Change permitted to permission D. No correction is neededAnswer: D – No correction is needed.
92Early American literature includes works by A. Native Americans B Early American literature includes works by A. Native Americans B. Colonists C. Settlers D. All of the aboveAnswer: D. All of the above
93During the late 19th to early 20th century, _____ became a new force in American literature. A. Novelists B. Dramatists C. Women D. PoetsAnswer: C. Women
94Answer: A/B. To Inform/persuade The purpose of a presentation can be to inform, to persuade, or to entertain. For each topic, choose the letter that best describes the purpose of the presentation. How to operate a fire extinguisher. A. To inform B. To persuade C. To entertain Why the movie version of The Color Purple is better than the book. A. To inform B. To persuade C. To entertainAnswer: A/B. To Inform/persuade
95Your teacher asks you to use at least three primary sources in your research paper about an author. Which of the following would fulfill this requirement? A. A novel by the author, an interview with the author, and a letter written to the author B. A Web site about the author, an encyclopedia entry about the author, and a diary entry by the author C. An encyclopedia entry about the author, an mentioning the author, and a speech by the author D. A survey about literature of the time, a journal article about the author’s work, and a textbook mentioning the authorAnswer: A. A novel by the author, an interview with the author, and a letter written to the author
96After reading a literary critic’s analysis of Hemingway’s use of bullfighting in his novel Death in the Afternoon, you restate her findings in your own words. Which technique are you using? A. A direct quote B. Paraphrasing C. Summarizing D. Anecdotal scriptingAnswer: B. Paraphrasing
97Ben Franklin once said, “early to bed early to rise makes a man healthy, wealthy, and wise.” This is an example of _____. A. A direct quote B. Paraphrasing C. Summarizing D. Anecdotal scriptingAnswer: A. A direct quote
98Which of the following would make the MOST effective research question for a research paper about American literature? A. What are molecules? B. During which years was Willa Cather alive? C. How did Henry David Thoreau’s friendships influence his writing? D. How many books did Flannery O’Connor write?Answer: C. How did Henry David Thoreau’s friendships influence his writing?
99Which of the following is an example of a secondary source. A Which of the following is an example of a secondary source? A. An interview B. A textbook C. A speech D. A poemAnswer: B. A textbook
100Choose the sentence that uses the correct punctuation and capitalization. A. Let’s go through the tunnel around the park and down Melcher Street to get home. B. Let’s go through the tunnel, around the park, and down Melcher Street to get home. C. Lets go through the tunnel, around the park, and down Melcher Street to get home. D. Lets go through the tunnel, around the park and down Melcher Street, to get home.Answer: B. Let’s go through the tunnel, around the park, and down Melcher Street to get home.
101Until this year, mathematics _____ my favorite subject. A. Is B. Are C Until this year, mathematics _____ my favorite subject. A. Is B. Are C. Was D. WereAnswer: C. Was
102What is the primary persuasive technique used in the following advertisement? Everyone wants strong and shiny hair, and that’s why women across America are trying our new BelleVitamin Shampoo. Our shampoo has a fresh, clean scent that you’ll love. Don’t be left in the cold with dull, boring hair. Join the rest of us, and try BelleVitamin Shampoo. We promise others will notice! A. Stereotyping B. Bandwagon C. Card stacking D. Rhetorical questionsAnswer: B. Bandwagon
103Maria wants to include a passage from Mark Twain’s The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn in her paper, but it is very long. She thinks she can cut out the middle of the passage and still keep the more important parts. What punctuation does she need to add to her excerpt so that the reader knows she omitted something? A. Parenthesis B. A colon C. A hyphen D. An ellipsisAnswer: D. An ellipses
104Which literary device is used in the following sentence Which literary device is used in the following sentence? I was so tired last night that I slept like a log. A. Onomatopoeia B. Simile C. Metaphor D. HyperboleAnswer: B. Simile
105The fact that a sweet carbonated drink has names like coke, pop, soda, and soft drink suggests differences in A. Dialect B. Spelling C. Meaning D. PronunciationAnswer: A. Dialect
106A literary movement emphasizing emotions and feelings that began in the late eighteenth century and ended during the Civil War was A. Transcendentalism B. Naturalism C. Post-Modernism D. RomanticismAnswer: D - Romanticism
107Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau represent authors from which literary movement? A. Transcendentalism B. Naturalism C. Realism D. ModernismAnswer: A – Transcendentalism
108In Anna Karenina, the story is told by an all-knowing narrator, allowing the reader to see the world through the eyes of many characters, not just Anna's.This is an example of which point of view? A. First person point of viewB. Second person point of view C. Third person-limited point of view D. Third person-omniscient point of viewAnswer: D - Third person omniscient point of view
109In what literary era did writers begin to break with tradition and rebel against the sentimentality of the Romantics? A. Realism B. Naturalism C. Transcendentalism D. ModernismAnswer: A - Realism
110Answer: D – role-playing Members of the high school student body decided to make a presentation to the administration for support and funds to form a marching band. Some students decided to pretend to be the principal and vice principal arguing against the idea. Other students responded to their comments. What problem-solving technique were these students using? A. constructing models B. creating metaphors C. brainstorming D. role-playingAnswer: D – role-playing
111Answer: D – Business Writing As per your request, I am enclosing a xerox copy of your account. This statement lists all of your activities from the last twelve months. If we may provide any further assistance, please do not hesitate to contact us. This excerpt would most likely come from: A. Personal Writing C. Social Writing B. Academic Writing D. Business WritingAnswer: D – Business Writing
112The correct contraction of they are is which of the following. A The correct contraction of they are is which of the following? A. their B. they’re C. there D. they’rAnswer: B – They’re
113Use the context clues in the sentence to decide the best meaning of the underlined word. They tried to ameliorate the hostage crisis with negotiations, but the terrorists were unreasonable and the situation worsened. A. worsen B. hide C. calm D. improveAnswer: D - improve
114Which of the following sentences has a subject-verb agreement error. A Which of the following sentences has a subject-verb agreement error? A. Everything is the same as it was when we left. B. No one is going to join us for a drink. C. None wanted to go to the beach. D. None of the guys is going to the movie.Answer: D – guys/is Corrected – guys/are
115Which sentence has the correct apostrophe usage. A. Its going to rain Which sentence has the correct apostrophe usage? A. Its going to rain. B. Its’ going to rain. C. It’s going to rain. D. I’ts going to rain.Answer: C – It’s - (It is) going to rain.
116Authors who tell a story using I or we such as JD Salinger in Catcher In the Rye are using A. objective point of view B. first-person point of view C. third-person point of view D. omniscient point of viewAnswer: B – First-person
117Clear, direct language and ordinary, everyday events characterize A Clear, direct language and ordinary, everyday events characterize A. Realism B. Modernism C. Transcendentalism D. NaturalismAnswer: A - Realism
118Puritan writing is characterized by A. fiction B. drama C. sermons D Puritan writing is characterized by A. fiction B. drama C. sermons D. humorAnswer: C - Sermons
119Native American literature was characterized by which of the following Native American literature was characterized by which of the following? A. poetry B. drama C. symbolic writing D. oral traditionAnswer: D – Oral Tradition
120Complete the analogy: Doctor : Patient :: Lawyer : A. Judge B Complete the analogy: Doctor : Patient :: Lawyer : A. Judge B. Criminal C. Client D. BailiffAnswer: C - Client
121During what time period was there the first significant movement of black writers and artists? A. the Colonial Period B. the Harlem Renaissance C. Modernism D. Post-ModernismAnswer: B – Harlem Renaissance
122Choose the following word that matches the definition: A way of speaking that is characteristic of a social group or of a certain geographical area is called ___. A. Epithet B. Assonance C. Dialect D. DictionAnswer: C - Dialect
123An expository passage is most likely written to ___. A. narrate B An expository passage is most likely written to ___. A. narrate B. entertain C. inform D. persuadeAnswer: C - inform
124All of the following are examples of facts except A. Mt All of the following are examples of facts except A. Mt. Rainier, in Washington State, is 14,410 feet. B. Vermont is the state with the smallest black population. C. Franklin Roosevelt was the first president to use the radio as a communication device. D. Women firefighters are more capable in their work than male firefighters.Answer: D
125Place the following events in their proper order: 1 Place the following events in their proper order: 1. Finally, results are analyzed and interpreted with respect to the perceived “correctness” of the hypothesis. 2. Predictions are made based on the hypothesis, and methods are designed for testing those predictions. 3. The experiment is conducted and data are collected. 4. Experimental design begins with asking a question and forming a testable hypothesis. A. 1,3,2,4 B. 1,3,4,2 C. 3,2,1,4 D. 4,2,3,1Answer: D
126Which statement expresses an opinion rather than a fact. A Which statement expresses an opinion rather than a fact? A. Patrick Henry delivered his “Give me liberty or give me death” speech in B. Jacqueline Kennedy was the wife of President John F. Kennedy. C. George Washington was the most admired president of all time. D. “The Gift of the Magi” was written by O. Henry.Answer: C
127ResourcesThe following resources were used in the creation of this PowerPoint:AMC’s Passing the Georgia High School Graduation Test in English Language Arts (2007).CPC’s Passing the Georgia High School Graduation Test in Mathematics, Writing, and English Language Arts (1995).Miscellaneous Internet sites.