Presentation on theme: "Taken from Burke County High School.Paradox is a statement or a group of statements. Oxymoron is a combination of two contradictory terms. 2.Paradox consists."— Presentation transcript:
Taken from Burke County High School.Paradox is a statement or a group of statements. Oxymoron is a combination of two contradictory terms. 2.Paradox consists of a whole sentence or a paragraph. Oxymoron on the other hand comes with only two words that contradicts itself. 3.Paradox is an action that is contradictory and oxymoron is a description of a phrase. Read more: Difference Between Oxymoron and Paradox | Difference Between | Oxymoron vs Paradox /difference-between-oxymoron-and- paradox/#ixzz1GINM3S7IDifference Between Oxymoron and Paradox | Difference Between | Oxymoron vs Paradox /difference-between-oxymoron-and- paradox/#ixzz1GINM3S7I
Types of Literature Prose Prose: consists of a story written in sentences and paragraphs that come from the authors own imagination. Poetry Poetry is set up in groups of lines called stanzas which have a certain rhythm or beat as you read them. Poetry also contains vivid images in very compact language. prose poetry The two main types of literature on this test are prose and poetry.
CHARACTER A person(s), animal, or natural force appearing in a literary work. PROTAGONIST The main character or hero of a short story. ANTAGONIST A rival or opponent of the hero.
Setting When and where a story takes place Point of View The vantage point from which the story is told– the relationship of the narrator to the story.Conflict The struggle between different forces in a storyPlot The sequence of events in a story that leads to the resolution
First-person First-person is told by a character who uses the first-person pronoun I. Third-person (Limited or Omniscient) Third-person (Limited or Omniscient) is the point of view where the narrator uses third- person pronouns such as he and she to refer to the characters. LIMITED: this perspective is distinct from the omniscient mode in that the reader experiences the story through the senses and thoughts of just one character. OMNISCIENT: this perspective is told from the point of view of a storyteller who plays no part in the story but knows all the facts, including the characters' thoughts.
The struggle between different forces in a story. Internal Internal conflict is a mental or emotional struggle that occurs within a character (Man vs. Himself) External External conflict is a struggle that occurs between a character and outside forces, which could be another character or the environment. (Man vs. Man, Society, Nature, etc)
Verbal irony Verbal irony is when a speaker says one thing but means another, or when a literal meaning is contrary to its intended effect. An example of this is sarcasm.sarcasm Dramatic irony Dramatic irony is when words and actions possess a significance that the listener or audience understands, but the speaker or character does not. Situational irony Situational irony is when the result of an action is contrary to the desired or expected effect... what you expect to happen does not come to pass.
Tone Tone is a reflection of a writers or speakers attitude toward a subject of a poem, story, or other literary work. Tone Tone may be communicated through words and details that express particular emotions and that evoke and emotional response from the reader. For example, word choice or phrasing may seem to convey respect, anger, lightheartedness, or sarcasm.
Flashback Flashback is action that interrupts to show an event that happened at an earlier time which is necessary to better understanding. Often flashbacks are presented as a memory of the narrator or of another character. Foreshadowing Foreshadowing is the use of hints or clues to suggest what will happen later in literature. Writers use foreshadowing to build their readers expectations and to create suspense. This is used to help readers prepare for what is to come.
Theme Theme is the general idea or insight about life that a writer wishes to express sometimes referred to a life lesson. All of the elements of literary terms contribute to theme. A simple theme can often be stated in a single sentence.literary terms
Poetry consists of imagery, rhythm and rhyme, and figures of speech.
LYRIC LYRIC: An emotional writing focusing on thought and emotion - can consist of a song-like quality. Subdivisions include elegy, ode and sonnet. Lyric poetry does not attempt to tell a story.
Elegy An elegy is a mournful, melancholic or plaintive poem, especially a funeral song or a lament for the dead. Ode An ode is a serious poem of a meditative nature written for a specific occasion or on a particular subject. They are often very formal with elevated language. Sonnet A fourteen-line poem usually having conventional rhyme schemes and specific structure.
NARRATIVE NARRATIVE A poem which tells a story. Includes the subdivision epic, a long story which tells of the heroic ideals of a particular society, and ballad, which generally tell of an event of interest such as a crime. Ballads were originally intended to be sung while dancing.
Epics Epics Epics are long, complicated story-poems. They tell of extraordinary deeds by supernatural heroes and villains. Ballads Ballads Ballads are part of the oral tradition and tella story through song. Their subjects can be heroic, satirical, romantic, or political. They focus on the actions and dialogue of a storynot the characters.
DRAMATIC DRAMATIC Any drama written in verse which is meant to be spoken, usually to tell a story or portray a situation. The majority of dramatic poetry is written in blank verse.
Imagery Imagery is words or phrases that recreate an experience of a feeling. It usually appeals to one or more of the five sensessight, sound, smell, taste, or touch. Rhythm Rhythm is a pattern of sound you hear as the poetry is spoken or read. Rhyme Rhyme refers to the repetition of sounds or words within lines (internal rhyme) or at the end of lines (end rhyme).
The most common rhythm in English poetry. Consists of a line ten syllables long that is accented on every second beat.
Blank verse free verse ( free form) Blank verse is written in unrhymed iambic pentameter. Whereas, free verse (sometimes referred to free form) is not written in iambic pentameter. Blank Verse Practitioners include Christopher Marlowe and William Shakespeare Free Verse Practitioners include Walt Whitman and TS Eliot
Couplet=a two line stanza Triplet=a three line stanza Quatrain=a four line stanza Quintet=a five line stanza Sestet=a six line stanza Septet=a seven line stanza Octave=an eight line stanza
Figures of Speech Figures of Speech are images that depart from standard wording to achieve a special meaning of effect.
Assonance Assonance is the repetition of vowel-sounds within non-rhyming words. Consonance Consonance is the repetition of consonant sounds within words. Alliteration Alliteration is the repetition of same sounds at the start of words. There is an example of all three of these terms in one line of the poem, The Raven, written by Edgar Allan Poe: And the silken sad uncertain rustling of each purple curtain Assonance is the repetition of the ur sound in "purple" and "curtain. Consonance is the repetition of the s sound within "uncertain" and "rustling. Alliteration is the repetition of the s sound at the start of "silken" and "sad.
Hyperbole Hyperbole is exaggeration or overstatement. Example: I'm so hungry I could eat a horse. He's as big as a house.
Simile Simile is the comparison of two unlike things using like or as. Example: He eats like a pig. Vines like golden prisons. Metaphor Metaphor is the comparison of two unlike things using the verb "to be" and not using like or as as in a simile.simile Example: He is a pig.
Onomatopoeia Onomatopoeia is a word that imitates the sound it represents. Example: splash, wow, gush, kerplunk Personification Personification is giving human characteristics to something non- human. Example: smiling moon
Oxymoron Oxymoron is a combination of contradictory or opposite words. Examples: pretty ugly jumbo shrimp legally drunk
Paradox Paradox is a statement that at first appears false but in reality is true. Example: Tis better to have loved and lost than never to have loved at all.
Understanding the Literary Periods
Native American (30,000BC-1730AD): Characteristicsfocus on the common origin of all things, tribal traditions and rituals, respect for all nature. Types of literaturemostly oral, some written, consisting of ceremonial songs and prayers, historical narratives, and poems.
Puritan/Colonial ( ): Characteristicsfocus on predestination, plainness in all things. Types of literaturesermons, diaries, journals, narratives, and poetry; fiction or drama was forbidden.
Revolutionary ( ): Characteristicshigh regard for reasoning and scientific observation; strong belief in human progress; freedom from restrictive laws and government; moderation and self- control in all things; stress on elegant, ornate style of writing. Types of literaturepolitical writings, almanacs, speeches, essays, and some poetry.
Romantic ( ): Characteristicshigh regard for inner feelings and emotions; focus on the individual; reverence for the imagination; use of language of the common people. Types of literaturepoetry, novels, short stories, sketches, and folklore.
Transcendentalism & Anti-Transcendentalism ( ): Characteristics(T) reverence for nature; happiness comes from individualism and self- reliance; (AT) critical of optimistic views; human nature a mixture of good and evil. Types of literatureessays, novels, short stories, and poetry.
Realism & Naturalism ( ): Characteristics(R) expression of life as it is actually lived; factual description of ordinary characters and events; regionalism or local color; focus on dialect, customs, and characters of a particular region; (N) heredity, environment, and economics determine ones destiny; nature as a brutal force; influence of scientific method. Types of literaturestories, novels, poetry, travel books, songs, and spirituals.
Modern Age (1918-present): Characteristicsopposition to dehumanizing trends in modern life; short stories with a more open form that stress mood and character rather than plot; loss of idealism due to war; experimental forms of poetry-- free verse, imagism, and confessional poetry; rise in African-American heritage, culture, and concerns.
Literal understanding Literal understanding refers to information that is directly stated in a passage. A main idea is the basic topic of a passage. It is often stated directly at the beginning of a passage. Sometimes it can be stated at the end, and, occasionally, it may not be stated at all. A supporting detail expands or clarifies the main idea of a passage. Since the supporting details develop the main idea, there are usually several. They may explain the main idea by cause-effect examples, sequence, or comparing and contrasting.
Inferential understanding Inferential understanding is information not directly stated in a passage. You may be asked to make various types of inferencesreading between the lines, an educated guessabout a passage. These inferences will take the form of (1) implied main ideamain idea that is not stated directly; (2) conclusionforming a judgment or opinion based on what is stated; or (3) prediction applying information from a passage to a new situation.
Propaganda is information that tries to falsely influence your opinions or feelings. It is found in television commercials, newspaper ads and editorials, political speeches, and everyday conversations too. Continue for examples...
Propaganda: Testimonials Example(s): Michael Jordan eats Wheaties. Sarah Jessica Parker states in a commercial that Preference hair color has better conditioners. (1) testimonials a commonly used technique in which famous persons endorse a product even though they may not be qualified experts.
Propaganda: Plain Folks Example(s): Everyone is having sex before marriage so it must be OK. The cool kids wear Polo and Tommy Hilifiger. (2) plain folksa technique which persuades us to think or act a certain way because other people are doing the same thing.
Propaganda: Transfer Example(s): The Statue of Liberty represents Liberty Insurance so people will respect the companys products. A political candidate gives a speech with the American flag in the background so people will trust in what he is saying. (3) transfera technique in which we connect our feelings about something to another unrelated thing (often symbols like flags, respected leaders, or historical figures are used).
Propaganda: Snob Appeal Example(s): Uncommon, unusual, unlike the rest – Avanti! The height of fashion is a Coach purse. (4) snob appeal a high social status is the reward for thinking or acting a certain way.
Propaganda: Glittering Generality Example(s): New, improved Speed Hair Spray! Vote for a future of progress and prosperity. (5) glittering generalitya general claim with no proof to support it.
Purpose Purpose refers to why an author writes. Readers can better understand written material when they can determine the reason an author writes. Four common purposes for writing are: (1) narrativetells a story through a series of unrelated events; (2) descriptionrecreates a person, place, or thing through words that appeal to the five senses; (3) expositorypresents information about a topic, usually through facts or examples; and (4) persuasion urges an audience to do something or accept an opinion.
Type of WritingExamples NarrationThe Time I Wrecked my New Car Falling in Love for the First Time DescriptionThe Beach at Sunset My Grandmothers Hands ExpositionTips for Conserving Water at Home How to Change a Tire PersuasionHomeless People Need Homes! Why We Should Raise the Minimum Wage!
Pattern Pattern means how a writer organizes the details of a passage. These details will follow a certain pattern in explaining the main idea. Four common patterns writers use are: (1) climacticsometimes this pattern is called order of importance because the writer starts with the least important details and ends with the most important details to make a point; (2) comparison/contrast shows similarities or differences between two ideas or things; (3) cause-effectcause refers to the reason for an action whereas effect is the result of an action; and (4) subordinationhelps us see the logical relationship between facts by using transitions.
Key Words: Firstin addition Secondnext Thirdthen Finallymost of all Alsoworst of all Least Important Most Important Most Important Least Important Examples: Ranking Household Expenses Most/Least Favorite Class
AlikeDifferent ComparisonContrast AlikeDiffer CompareContrast SimilarUnlike SameOn the other hand EquallyBut ResemblesHowever Examples: How My Mom and Dad are Alike (Comparison) How My Mom and Dad are Different (Contrast)
Cause Effect CauseEffect ReasonResult BecauseAffect SourceConsequence BasisOutcome Examples: Why Earthquakes Happen How Earthquakes Affect California
Subordination helps us see logical relationships between facts; the relationship is made clearer by subordinating one idea to another. Examples: Before we left for vacation, we asked out neighbors to watch the house. Americans want to lower taxes so that more of us can pay our bills. If you pass the final, you will pass your English class. Key Words for Subordination aftersoifbecause assinceunlesswhich beforewhereasthoughalthough whenthatwhileuntil
Logic refers to reasoning writers use to communicate their ideas. Unfortunately, writers can sometimes make errors in reasoning or fallacies.
Certain questions sequence on sequence will logical sequence of ask you to organize a group of sentences into a logical sequence of events events. These events would then lead to a final concluding sentence. Example Example: Organize the following sentences into a sequence of events that will lead to this conclusion: All the animals sought refuge from the fury of the storm. 1.The pines swayed and branches feel from trees. 2.There was a sudden calm and the air was heavy. 3.Black, ominous clouds gathered overhead. 4.Birds screeched and dogs barked as the wind intensified. A. 3, 2, 4, 1C. 2, 3, 1, 4 B. 2, 3, 4, 1D. 3, 1, 2, 4 Since a storm usually begins quietly and then picks up strength, the best answer is B.
A generalization is a statement that summarizes or ties together information in a passage. It may be stated directly or it may be inferred from evidence in the passage. Example Example: Which of the following statements is the best generalization about this passage? The blood carries oxygen from the lungs to each cell in the body. In addition, the blood carries carbon dioxide from the cells to the lings where it is expelled as a waste product. Nutrients like protein and glucose depend on the blood for their dispersal throughout the body. 1.The blood serves many functions in the body 2.Protein and glucose provide food for the blood. 3.No one can survive without a plentiful supply of blood. 4.The blood provides oxygen to every cell in the body. Based on the evidence in the passage, the best answer is A. This generalization summaries what the passage is about.
Not questions Not questions require you to find irrelevant statements in a selection. These irrelevant statements are examples, facts, or ideas not mentioned in a passage. Types of NOT Questions Types of NOT Questions: Which statement would not be useful for establishing a new community center? Which sentence is irrelevant to the persuasive purpose of the writer? The American literary movement least influenced by the Industrial Revolution was… All of the following statements are necessary for supporting this argument except… Which statement is not an example of fallacious (erroneous) reasoning? Tips for Answering Not Questions 1.Read the question two or three times, eliminating statements that are relevant. 2.The one that is left is your irrelevant statement. 3.Always verify your answer by going back through the passage.
argument An argument is a method of logic or reasoning. The writer uses reasons to support a claim or assertion about a topic or issue. Tips for Analyzing an Argument 1.Identify the assertion or claim of the argument. Usually it is the first sentence of the passage. In some kinds or argument, it may appear at the end as the conclusion. Occasionally, you will have to arrive at your own conclusion based on the evidence. 2.Decide whether each reason supports the claim. Some reasons will strongly support the claim –they will be logical and relevant to the argument. However, other reasons may be weak and irrelevant to the argument, providing little support for the assertion or claim.
errors Logical fallacies are errors in reasoning. They reveal unclear thinking that weakens an argument. Sharp readers should be able to spot fallacies. The four most common fallacies are (1) hasty generalizations, (2) false analogies, (3) circular reasoning, and (4) personal attacks.
Hasty Generalizations Hasty Generalizations – making an inference or judgment based on insufficient evidence. Example: You arrive to your English class. No one is there, so you decide the class has been cancelled. This judgment is based on too little evidence. The class could be on a field trip, in another room, at a special assembly, etc.
False Analogy False Analogy – a misleading comparison between two ideas that are not alike in all aspects. Example: High school students got along without cars in the 1940s; therefore, they can get along without cars today as well. Although there are high school students in both time periods, circumstances are different today. Cars are plentiful, more affordable, and, in most cases, a necessity because of greater distances between home, school, and work.
Circular reasoning Circular reasoning – part of a point is used as evidence to support it. This is also called begging the question. Example: Cheating on exams is wrong because looking at someone elses test is bad. No real reasons for cheating are given; the statement merely repeats itself.
Personal Attacks Personal Attacks – attacking a persons life rather than his or her ideas. Example: Carla is always joking with her friends, so how could she run for student council president?! Carlas sense of humor has little connection with how she would lead students. In fact, it could turn into an asset.
Some of the questions on the test will test your ability to locate specific information found in features of printed materials. Reference Materials Table of contentsPreface IntroductionTitles and subtitles GlossaryIndex BibliographyDictionary AppendixEncyclopedia Almanac
Pay close attention to the endings of web addresses..comCommercial site; usually selling something.netNetwork.orgNon-profit organization.govLocal or National Government.eduEducational site When you are looking at websites, it is useful have an understanding of implications of the common suffixes used in the addresses for websites (called URLs). Some suffixes give a clue about the nature of the organization which owns the website.
AUTOBIOGRAPHY A non-fictional account of a person's life--usually a celebrity, an important historical figure, or a writer--written by that actual person.BIOGRAPHY A non-fictional account of a person's life written by someone other than who is being highlighted.
Primary Sources Original article or book created by a person or group of people Examples include letters, short stories, poems, novels, plays, speeches, films, etc. William Shakepeares play Romeo and Juliet Secondary Sources Sources that are written about primary sources Examples include journal articles, periodicals, encyclopedias, dictionaries, essays, reviews, etc. Rachel Moores essay entitled Courtly Love in William Shakespeares Romeo and Juliet
Copying the information verbatim (word for word) Using quotation marks to identify what has been copied Providing a source citation Direct Quotes Putting the information in your own words Shortening the material by condensing it (accurately detail the main idea and supporting details) Providing a source citation Paraphrasing Putting the information in your own words Shortening the material by condensing it; only providing an overview (omit the details & express only the most important details) Providing a source citation Summarizing
A fact is a true statement that can be proven through observations, research, or statistics. An opinion is a statement of judgment or personal belief. It may or may not be true. Adjectives or the word I is often used. Fact Before he became president of the United States, Ronald Reagan was governor of California. Opinion I think Ronald Reagan was a great president of the United States.
Problem solving is a technique used to arrive at a solution to some difficulty.
BrainstormingGenerating ideas, often with others, to find new ways of solving a problem. Example: Discussing ways to build racial understanding. Creating MetaphorsSolving a problem by connecting it to a similar problem. Example: Visiting a recycling center in Macon to learn how to recycle waste in Waynesboro. Constructing ModelsCreating a chart or design to solve a problem. Example: Making a drawing of the new auditorium for a high school. Role PlayingSolving a problem by acting it out. Example: Rehearsing an upcoming job interview with a friend so youll know what to expect. AnalogyFinding pairs of words that are related in some way to a first pair of words. Both sets of words are separated by a double colon. Example: writer : pen :: painter : brush
Remember: The first two words in an analogy are related to each other in some way. You have to figure out what the relationship is. Then look for a similar relationship in one of your choices. 1.Cause – effectcut : pain 2.Sizewhale : mouse 3.Shapeballoon : sphere 4.TimeSunday : Monday 5.Similaritiesfaith : belief 6.Oppositesday : night 7.Part to a wholebranch : tree 8.Purpose or usehammer : nail 9.Object to an actionfootball : kick 10.Worker & toolfarmer : plow Common Types of Analogies
The English we use may be appropriate in one situation but not in another. On the test, you may be asked specific questions about language; make sure you can distinguish between (1) slang, (2) colloquial language, (3) inappropriate English, and (4) Standard American English.
SlangInformal language that enjoys brief popularity then generally becomes obsolete. Examples: crib, dis, sike, yo mama, word, peace, my bad, etc. Colloquial EnglishWords that are appropriate in dialogue and informal writing but inappropriate in formal writing [contractions, short words, or clichés]. Examples: You bet Ill be there! Hes in so deep theres no way out! The apple never falls far from the tree. Inappropriate EnglishContains grammar and usage that do not follow the standard rules for English. Example: I done really bad on that test yesterday! Aint no way Im gonna pass that class. Standard American English English most widely accepted in the United States; it is the language of educated people. Example: I preformed really badly on yesterdays test. Now there is no way I can pass the class.
Grammar rules state that the subject of a sentence MUST agree with the corresponding verb of the sentence. The subject is the word performing the action (verb). The number of the verb is not affected by material that comes between the verb and subject. Determine the real subject of the verb; watch out for intervening words that might mislead you. Remember that the number of the verb is not altered when other nouns are attached to the subject by means of prepositions such as in addition to, together with, as well as, with, along with. Remember also that indefinite pronoun subjects like either, neither, each, one, everyone, no one, somebody take singular verbs. Examples: Immediate settlement of these problems is vital. The cost of replacing the asbestos shingles with cedar shakes was considerable. Mr. Shelton, together with several other division heads, has left.
A pronoun is a word that substitutes for a noun or another pronoun. The word for which a pronoun stands is called its antecedent. Examples: I called Harry, but he didnt answer. [He substitutes for Harry. Harry is the antecedent of he.] I will wash my car tomorrow. One of my friends is painting his house. To use pronouns effectively and without confusing your reader, you must follow two basic principles: (1) You must establish a clear, easily identified relationship between a pronoun and its antecedent, and (2) You must make the pronoun and its antecedent agree in person, number, and gender.
offers signals showing the reader where ideas separate and where they blend together. Punctuation may signal contrasting elements or complimentary ones. END PUNCTUATION End punctuation signals when a sentence is complete. It also signals the type of sentence: statement, with period (.); question, with question mark (?); or exclamation, with an exclamation point (!). Examples: 1.When a tree falls in the woods, it may land in the creek with a splash. 2.If a tree falls in the woods onto a moss bed, does it make a noise? 3.When that tree fell in the woods onto my car, it made a huge noise!
COMMAS The use of commas is varied and valuable. Some comma functions are as follows: signaling restatement; separating two independent clauses when paired with a conjunction; or setting off direct address; and separating simple series items. Examples: 1.Plato, one of the creators of philosophical thought, developed the image of reality as shadows on a cave wall. 2.Plato and Aristotle were philosophers in the same age, and they motivated each other to achieving ever greater insights. 3.The philosophy of the winner takes all in reality programs seems insane to me, Alexis. 4.Speaking of Platos reality as shadows on a wall, its banality is proven by reality shows like Survivor, The Apprentice, and I Want to be a Hilton.
SEMI COLONS Semi-colons signal stronger pause than commas but are used in similar situations. They are used to separate independent clauses (without conjunctions), and they separate complex items in a series. Examples: 1.Ms. Flores said that it was a philosopher who first asked that if a tree falls in the woods does it make a sound if no one is there to hear; this kind of unsolvable question can be used as an ice breaker for people who are getting acquainted. 2.The membership of our philosophy club may surprise most people as it includes Troy Birch, a start basketball player; Jason Simpson, the high dive champion; and Penelope Weaver, our top tennis ace.
COLONS A colon is a definite break in the flow of a text. Some textual uses include signaling new information to be added or attaching a list of items to the sentence. Examples: 1.It is said that History repeats itself: at least if it is not remembered and the lessons are not learned. 2.Spanish-born George Santayana wrote on many topics such as the following: life/death, individuality/society, and knowledge/faith.
Lets apply what youve learned....
Answer: C. Does the water in this community meet health and safety standards?
Answer: D. Please consider supporting the band, which is vital to our school.
Answer: A. Pat has the best grades in the school.
Answer: D. Puritans
Answer: C. Read Thoreaus Walden
Answer: A. American ex patriots who disappeared in Europe
Answer: D – No correction is needed.
Answer: D. All of the above
Answer: C. Women
Answer: A/B. To Inform/persuade
Answer: A. A novel by the author, an interview with the author, and a letter written to the author
Answer: B. Paraphrasing
Answer: A. A direct quote
Answer: C. How did Henry David Thoreaus friendships influence his writing?
Answer: B. A textbook
Answer: B. Lets go through the tunnel, around the park, and down Melcher Street to get home.
Answer: C. Was
Answer: B. Bandwagon
Answer: D. An ellipses
Answer: B. Simile
Answer: A. Dialect
Answer: D - Romanticism
Answer: A – Transcendentalism
Answer: D - Third person omniscient point of view
Answer: A - Realism
Answer: D – role-playing
Answer: D – Business Writing
Answer: B – Theyre
Answer: D - improve
Answer: D – guys/is Corrected – guys/are
Answer: C – Its - (It is) going to rain.
Answer: B – First-person
Answer: A - Realism
Answer: C - Sermons
Answer: D – Oral Tradition
Answer: C - Client
Answer: B – Harlem Renaissance
Answer: C - Dialect
Answer: C - inform
The following resources were used in the creation of this PowerPoint: 1.AMCs Passing the Georgia High School Graduation Test in English Language Arts (2007). 2.CPCs Passing the Georgia High School Graduation Test in Mathematics, Writing, and English Language Arts (1995). 3.Miscellaneous Internet sites.