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1 PSYCHOLOGY (8th Edition) David Myers PowerPoint Slides Aneeq Ahmad Henderson State University Worth Publishers, © 2006.

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Presentation on theme: "1 PSYCHOLOGY (8th Edition) David Myers PowerPoint Slides Aneeq Ahmad Henderson State University Worth Publishers, © 2006."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 PSYCHOLOGY (8th Edition) David Myers PowerPoint Slides Aneeq Ahmad Henderson State University Worth Publishers, © 2006

2 2 Perception Chapter 6

3 3 Perception Selective Attention Perceptual Illusions Perceptual Organization Form Perception Motion Perception Perceptual Constancy

4 4 Perception Perceptual Interpretation Sensory Deprivation and Restored Vision Perceptual Adaptation Perceptual Set Perception and Human Factor

5 5 Perception Is there Extrasensory Perception? Claims of ESP Premonitions or Pretensions Putting ESP to Experimental Test

6 6 Perception The process of selecting, organizing, and interpreting sensory information, which enables us to recognize meaningful objects and events.

7 7 Selective Attention The focusing of our conscious awareness on a particular stimulus, while ignoring the other stimuli that we are sensing (outside our awareness). Perceptions about objects change from moment to moment. The cocktail party effect (paying attention to only one voice out of many that may be speaking) is an example of selective attention. Necker Cube

8 8 Inattentional Blindness Inattentional blindness refers to the inability to see an object or a person in our midst. Simmons & Chabris (1999) showed that half of the observers failed to see the gorilla- suited assistant in a ball passing game. Daniel Simons, University of Illinois

9 9 Change Blindness Change blindness is a form of inattentional blindness in which a gradual change goes un-noticed, or a person giving directions fails to notice a change in the individual asking for directions. Change deafness refers to the failure to notice a change in auditory stimuli. Choice blindness is the failure to notice that the choice defended (as in a line-up) is not the original choice. The opposite of these might be, pop-out (pg 239), in which a strikingly distinct stimulus draws your eye. © 1998 Psychonomic Society Inc. Image provided courtesy of Daniel J. Simmons.

10 10 Perceptual Illusions Illusions provide good examples in understanding how perception is organized. Studying faulty perception is as important as studying other perceptual phenomena. Line AB is longer than line BC.

11 11 Tall Arch In this picture, the vertical dimension of the arch looks longer than the horizontal dimension. However, both are equal. Rick Friedman/ Black Star

12 12 Illusion of a Worm The figure on the right gives the illusion of a blue hazy worm when it is nothing else but blue lines identical to the figure on the left. © 1981, by permission of Christoph Redies and Lothar Spillmann and Pion Limited, London

13 13 3-D Illusion It takes a great deal of effort to perceive this figure in two dimensions. Reprinted with kind permission of Elsevier Science-NL. Adapted from Hoffman, D. & Richards, W. Parts of recognition. Cognition, 63, 29-78

14 14 Perceptual Organization When vision competes with our other senses, vision usually wins – a phenomena called visual capture (vision dominates our other senses). Gestalt (our tendency to integrate meaningful pieces into an organized/unified whole) psychologists showed that a figure formed a whole different than its surroundings.

15 15 Organization of the visual field into objects (figures) that stand out from their surroundings (ground). Figure-Ground Time Savings Suggestion, © 2003 Roger Sheperd.

16 16 Grouping After distinguishing the figure from the ground, our perception needs to organize the figure into a meaningful form using grouping rules.

17 17 Grouping & Reality Although grouping principles usually help us construct reality, they may occasionally lead us astray. In closure, we fill in the gaps to create a complete and whole object Both photos by Walter Wick. Reprinted from GAMES Magazine..© 1983 PCS Games Limited Partnership

18 18 Depth Perception Visual Cliff Depth perception enables us to judge distances. It works best when both eyes are used, but can still be perceived with only one. Gibson and Walk performed their visual cliff experiments (1960) proving that human infants (crawling age) have depth perception. Even newborn animals show depth perception. Innervisions

19 19 Binocular Cues Binocular cues help us to judge distances in the most accurate way possible. Retinal disparity: Images from the two eyes differ because they are approximately 2.5 inches apart. Try looking at your two index fingers when pointing them towards each other half an inch apart and about 5 inches directly in front of your eyes. You will see a finger sausage as shown in the inset.

20 20 Binocular Cues Convergence: Neuromuscular cues. When two eyes move inward (towards the nose) to see near objects and outward (away from the nose) to see faraway objects.

21 21 Monocular Cues Monocular cues also help us to judge distance, especially of objects that are straight ahead, and further away. Relative Size: If two objects are similar in size, we perceive the one that casts a smaller retinal image to be farther away.

22 22 Monocular Cues Interposition: Objects that occlude (block) other objects tend to be perceived as closer. Rene Magritte, The Blank Signature, oil on canvas, National Gallery of Art, Washington. Collection of Mr. and Mrs. Paul Mellon. Photo by Richard Carafelli.

23 23 Monocular Cues Relative Clarity: Because light from distant objects passes through more air than closer objects, we perceive hazy objects to be farther away than those objects that appear sharp and clear.

24 24 Monocular Cues Texture Gradient: Indistinct (fine) texture signals an increasing distance. © Eric Lessing/ Art Resource, NY

25 25 Monocular Cues Relative Height: We perceive objects that are higher in our field of vision to be farther away than those that are lower. Image courtesy of Shaun P. Vecera, Ph. D., adapted from stimuli that appered in Vecrera et al., 2002

26 26 Monocular Cues Relative motion: Objects closer to a fixation point move faster and in opposing direction to those objects that are farther away from a fixation point, moving slower and in the same direction. Motion can also be mimicked through slightly altering a series of still pictures, and then rapidly flipping through them causing stroboscopic vision.

27 27 Monocular Cues Linear Perspective: Parallel lines, such as railroad tracks, appear to converge in the distance. The more the lines converge, the greater their perceived distance. © The New Yorker Collection, 2002, Jack Ziegler from All rights reserved.

28 28 Monocular Cues Light and Shadow: Nearby objects reflect more light into our eyes than more distant objects. Given two identical objects, the dimmer one appears to be farther away. From Perceiving Shape From Shading by Vilayaur S. Ramachandran. © 1988 by Scientific American, Inc. All rights reserved.

29 29 Motion Perception Motion Perception: Objects traveling towards us grow in size and those moving away shrink in size. The same is true when the observer moves to or from an object.

30 30 Apparent Motion Phi Phenomenon: When lights flash at a certain speed they tend to present illusions of motion. Neon signs use this principle to create motion perception. Two lights flashing one after the other. One light jumping from one point to another: Illusion of motion.

31 31 Perceptual Constancy Perceiving objects as unchanging even as illumination and retinal images change. Shape constancy refers to the fact that although the image may slightly change on our retina (the door going from a rectangle to almost a trapezoidal form) we still perceive a constant shape. Shape Constancy

32 32 Size Constancy Stable size perception amid changing size of the stimuli. Size Constancy

33 33 Size-Distance Relationship The distant monster (below, left) and the top red bar (below, right) appear bigger because of distance cues. From Shepard, 1990 Alan Choisnet / The Image Bank

34 34 Size-Distance Relationship Both girls in the room are of similar height. However, we perceive them to be of different heights as they stand in the two corners of the room. Both photos from S. Schwartzenberg/ The Exploratorium

35 35 Ames Room The Ames room is designed with only a couple of right angles, to demonstrate the size-distance illusion.

36 36 Other Perceptual Illusions Moon Illusion: The moon looks up to 50% larger on the horizon, than it does in the high night sky. Cues to objects distances on the horizon make the moon behind them seem larger. Ponzo Illusion: Experience tells us that a more distant object must be larger than a nearer one in order to cast the same size image on the retina. Muller-Lyer Illusion: Our experience with the corners of rooms or buildings prompts us to determine that the vertical line on the left appears shorter than the same length vertical line on the right.

37 37 Lightness Constancy We perceive an object as having a constant color regardless of the illumination. The color and brightness of square A and B are the same, as are the shirts. Courtesy Edward Adelson

38 38 The amount of light that an object reflects relative to its surroundings Relative Luminance

39 39 Perceptual Interpretation Immanuel Kant ( ) maintained that knowledge comes from our inborn ways of organizing sensory experiences. John Locke ( ) argued that we learn to perceive the world through our experiences. How important is experience in shaping our perceptual interpretation?

40 40 Restored Vision After cataract surgery, blind adults were able to regain sight. These individuals could differentiate figure and ground relationships, yet they had difficulty distinguishing a circle and a triangle (Von Senden, 1932). They had never learned to tell the difference visually.

41 41 Facial Recognition After blind adults regained sight, they were able to recognize distinct features, but were unable to recognize faces. Normal observers also show difficulty in facial recognition when the lower half of the pictures are changed. Courtesy of Richard LeGrand

42 42 Kittens raised without exposure to horizontal lines later had difficulty perceiving horizontal bars. This demonstrates the critical period for normal sensory and perceptual development. Blakemore & Cooper (1970) Sensory Deprivation

43 43 Perceptual Adaptation Visual perceptual adaptation is the ability to adjust to an artificially displaced visual field, e.g., prism glasses that displace the visual field by a set number of degrees. Courtesy of Hubert Dolezal

44 44 Perceptual Set A mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not another. What you see in the center picture is influenced by the flanking pictures. From Shepard, 1990.

45 45 (a) Loch ness monster or a tree trunk; (b) Flying saucers or clouds? Perceptual Set Other examples of perceptual set. Frank Searle, photo Adams/ Corbis-Sygma Dick Ruhl

46 46 Children's schemas represent reality as well as their abilities to represent what they see. Schemas Schemas are concepts that organize and interpret unfamiliar information. Courtesy of Anna Elizabeth Voskuil

47 47 Students recognized a caricature of Arnold Schwarzenegger faster than his actual photo. Features on a Face Face schemas are accentuated by specific features on the face. Kieran Lee/ FaceLab, Department of Psychology, University of Western Australia

48 48 Eye & Mouth Eyes and mouth play a dominant role in face recognition. Courtesy of Christopher Tyler

49 49 The two center squares are both 60% grey Context Effects The context surrounding an object can radically alter our perception.

50 50 To an East African, the woman sitting is balancing a metal box on her head, while the family is sitting under a tree. Cultural Context Context instilled by culture also alters perception.

51 51 Perception Revisited Is perception innate or acquired?

52 52 Perception & Human Factors Human Factor Psychologists design machines that assist our natural perceptions. The knobs for the stove burners on the right are easier to understand than those on the left. Photodisc/ Punchstock Courtesy of General Electric

53 53 Human Factors & Misperceptions Understanding human factors enables us to design equipment to prevent disasters. Two-thirds of airline crashes caused by human error are largely due to errors of perception.

54 54 Human Factors in Space To combat conditions of monotony, stress, and weightlessness when traveling to Mars, NASA engages Human Factor Psychologists. Transit Habituation (Transhab), NASA

55 55 Is There Extrasensory Perception? Perception without sensory input is called extrasensory perception (ESP). A large percentage of scientists do not believe in ESP.

56 56 Claims of ESP Parapsychologists investigate phenomena including astrological predictions, psychic healing, communication with the dead, and out- of-body experiences, but most relevant are telepathy, clairvoyance, and precognition.

57 57 Types of ESP 1.Telepathy: Mind-to-mind communication. One person sending thoughts and the other receiving them. 2.Clairvoyance: Perception of remote events, such as sensing a friends house on fire. 3.Precognition: Perceiving future events, such as a political leaders death. 4.Psycho-Kinesis: Being able to manipulate objects with only your mind.

58 58 Putting ESP to Experimental Test In an experiment with 28,000 individuals, Wiseman attempted to prove whether or not one can psychically influence or predict a coin toss. People were able to correctly influence or predict a coin toss 49.8% of the time.

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