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Perceptual Organization A group of German psycholgists noticed that when given a cluster of sensations, people tend to organize them into a gestalt (form.

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Presentation on theme: "Perceptual Organization A group of German psycholgists noticed that when given a cluster of sensations, people tend to organize them into a gestalt (form."— Presentation transcript:

1 Perceptual Organization A group of German psycholgists noticed that when given a cluster of sensations, people tend to organize them into a gestalt (form or whole) We filter and infer in ways that make sense to us Human body example: combined value is more valuable than they ever could be on their own 1

2 Form Perception Organization of the visual field into objects (figures) that stand out from their surroundings (ground). 2 Time Savings Suggestion, © 2003 Roger Sheperd.

3 Grouping Proximity-discomfort example Similarity-uncofmrtable with being grouped with people you don’t know After distinguishing the figure from the ground, our perception needs to organize the figure into a meaningful form using grouping rules.

4 Grouping & Reality Although grouping principles usually help us construct reality, they may occasionally lead us astray. 4 Both photos by Walter Wick. Reprinted from GAMES Magazine..© 1983 PCS Games Limited Partnership

5 Depth Perception Depth perception enables us to judge distances. Gibson and Walk (1960) suggested that human infants (crawling age) have depth perception. Even newborn animals show depth perception. *Three dimensions *Depth perception grows with age 5 Visual Cliff Innervisions

6 Binocular Cues: two eyes better than one Retinal disparity: Images from the two eyes differ. Try looking at your two index fingers when pointing them towards each other half an inch apart and about 5 inches directly in front of your eyes. You will see a “finger sausage” as shown in the inset. *Predator example-peripheral vision 6

7 Monocular Cues Relative Size: If two objects are similar in size, we perceive the one that casts a smaller retinal image to be farther away. *Horizontal-vertical illusion-St. Louis Gateway Arch 7

8 Monocular Cues Interposition: Objects that occlude (block) other objects tend to be perceived as closer. 8 Rene Magritte, The Blank Signature, oil on canvas, National Gallery of Art, Washington. Collection of Mr. and Mrs. Paul Mellon. Photo by Richard Carafelli.

9 Monocular Cues Relative Height: We perceive objects that are higher in our field of vision to be farther away than those that are lower. 9 Image courtesy of Shaun P. Vecera, Ph. D., adapted from stimuli that appered in Vecrera et al., 2002

10 Monocular Cues Relative motion: Objects closer to a fixation point move faster and in opposing direction to those objects that are farther away from a fixation point, moving slower and in the same direction. 10

11 Monocular Cues Linear Perspective: Parallel lines, such as railroad tracks, appear to converge in the distance. The more the lines converge, the greater their perceived distance. 11 © The New Yorker Collection, 2002, Jack Ziegler from All rights reserved.

12 Monocular Cues Light and Shadow: Nearby objects reflect more light into our eyes than more distant objects. Given two identical objects, the dimmer one appears to be farther away. 12 From “Perceiving Shape From Shading” by Vilayaur S. Ramachandran. © 1988 by Scientific American, Inc. All rights reserved.

13 Perceptual Constancy Perceiving objects as unchanging even as illumination and retinal images change. 13

14 Color Constancy Perceiving familiar objects as having consistent color even when changing illumination filters the light reflected by the object. *Color comes from object and context *In a constext that does not vary we maintain color constancy 14 Color Constancy

15 Size-Distance Relationship The distant monster (below, left) and the top red bar (below, right) appear bigger because of distance cues. *Perceiving an object’s distance gives us cues to its size 15 From Shepard, 1990 Alan Choisnet/ The Image Bank

16 Size-Distance Relationship 16 Both girls in the room are of similar height. However, we perceive them to be of different heights as they stand in the two corners of the room. Both photos from S. Schwartzenberg/ The Exploratorium

17 Lightness Constancy 17 The color and brightness of square A and B are the same. We percieve an object as having a constant lightness even while its illumination varies Courtesy Edward Adelson

18 Perceptual Interpretation Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) maintained that knowledge comes from our inborn ways of organizing sensory experiences. John Locke (1632-1704) argued that we learn to perceive the world through our experiences. 18 How important is experience in shaping our perceptual interpretation?

19 Sensory Deprivation & Restored Vision After cataract surgery, blind adults were able to regain sight. These individuals could differentiate figure and ground relationships, yet they had difficulty distinguishing a circle and a triangle (Von Senden, 1932). Born with some aspects of perception but could not by sight recognize objects that were familiar by touch 19

20 Facial Recognition After blind adults regained sight, they were able to recognize distinct features, but were unable to recognize faces. Normal observers also show difficulty in facial recognition when the lower half of the pictures are changed. 20 Courtesy of Richard LeGrand

21 Perceptual Adaptation Visual ability to adjust to an artificially displaced visual field, e.g., prism glasses. Humans adapt very quickly! 21 Courtesy of Hubert Dolezal

22 Perceptual Set A mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not another. What you see in the center picture is influenced by flanking pictures. 22 From Shepard, 1990.

23 Perceptual Set 23 (a) Loch ness monster or a tree trunk; (b) Flying saucers or clouds? Other examples of perceptual set. We make assumptions based on what we hear We form schemas (concepts) through experiences Frank Searle, photo Adams/ Corbis-Sygma Dick Ruhl

24 Context Effects 24 Is the “magician cabinet” on the floor or hanging from the ceiling? Context can radically alter perception. EX: stereotypes of gender *Studying *Insomnia

25 Cultural Context 25 What is above the woman’s head? Context instilled by culture also alters perception.

26  To an East African, the woman sitting is balancing a metal box on her head, while the family is sitting under a tree 26

27 Perception and Motivation and emotion  Motives also matter  Viewers tended to perceive an ample of their “hoped-for category”  Emotions color our social perceptions  Spouses stressful marital events 27

28 Perception Revisited 28 Is perception innate or acquired?

29 Is There Extrasensory Perception? Perception without sensory input is called extrasensory perception (ESP). A large percentage of scientists do not believe in ESP. 29

30 Claims of ESP 1.Telepathy: Mind-to-mind communication. One person sending thoughts and the other receiving them. 2.Clairvoyance: Perception of remote events, such as sensing a friend’s house on fire. 3.Precognition: Perceiving future events, such as a political leader’s death. 30

31 Premonitions or Pretensions?  Psychic visions are no more accurate than guesses made by others  Psychics generate hundreds of predictions which increases the odds of an occasional correct guess, which psychics report to the media  Vague predictions can later be interpreted  Coincidences are sure to occur  Horoscopes are so ambiguous so that people can apply them to multiple situations 31

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