2 What is the Scientific Method? The Scientific Method is an organized way of answering a science question. There are usually six parts to it. It is used all over the world every day to make new discoveries1. Purpose/Question- What do you want to learn? 2. Research- Find out as much as you can. 3. Hypothesis- Try to predict the answer to the problem. Another term for hypothesis is 'educated guess'. This is usually stated like " If I...(do something) then...(this will occur)4. Experiment- The fun part! Design a test or procedure to confirm or disprove your hypothesis. 5. Analysis- Record what happened during the experiment. Also known as 'data'.6. Conclusion- Review the data and check to see if your hypothesis was correct.
3 1. PURPOSE: What is the Question I want to answer? Question that does not have a “yes” or “no” answer.
4 2. RESEARCH.Read as much as you can and find out about the subject. What have other people done? What did they find out?Take notes and copy any charts and graphs about this subject. You may change your Question.Note any experiments that can MEASURE (measurement tools) to give answers to questionNow plan your own experiment.
5 3. HYPOTHESIS What do I predict will happen? Hypothesis. This is sometimes stated as an “educated guess”Predicting the outcome of your experimentBe specific. Use scientific measurement terms.
6 4. EXPERIMENTGather materials; plan ahead; keep detailed notes; take pictures; create data tables; make obserationsExperimentControl groupExperimental groupIndependent variableDependent variable
7 Control group:In a test or trial, a group that does not receive the new treatment being studied and which is compared to the group that does receive the new treatmentThis is the comparison group that does not change. Ex) when testing a new vaccine, this is the group that does NOT get the new medicine.
8 Experimental group:A group of subjects that are exposed to the variable of a control experiment.This is the group that is expected to show changes. Ex) when testing a new vaccine, this is the group that DOES get some of the new medicine.
9 Independent variable: A variable that is not affected by any other variables with which it is compared.This is the new or experimental item that is introduced to the experiment ex) when testing a new vaccine, the amount of vaccine put into each group is the independent variable. It stands alone.
10 Dependent variable:the event studied and expected to change when the independent variable is changed.These are the measurable things that you can see and hear and observe after your experiment. They change, depending on how much Independent Variable is changedEx) when testing a new vaccine, this is the measureable changes in the different groups after then received (some or none) the new vaccine medicine. How many people still got the disease or how severe were their symptoms.
11 5. ANALYSIS What is the answer to my question? Analysis: explain what happened and possible reasons why it happened.
12 6. CONCLUSIONConclusion: Share your results. A clear and concise report of your process.Tell what you just did in a nutshell. What did you learn?Conclusions: explain what you would do the same again and what you would do different. Was your hypothesis supported or not?Did your opinion change?What would you do next year as an offshoot of this experiment or an extensionPublish!!
13 Theory:a set of related hypotheses that have been tested and confirmed many times by many scientists.A Theory Unites and explains a broad range of observations.
14 Graphic organizer for Scientific Method Questions/PurposePredictions and hypothesesexperimentationAnalysis: Some hypotheses are rejectedAnalysis: Some hypotheses are supportedConclusions: Related hypotheses are verified by many different scientistsTHEORY
15 Graphic organizer for Scientific Method Q________________P________________H________________________E________________A______________: Some hypotheses are rejectedA______________: Some hypotheses are supportedC:___________________Related hypotheses are verified by many different scientistsT:________________
16 PRACTICE QUESTIONSIt has been hypothesized that a chemical known as BW prevents colds. To test this hypothesis, 20,000 volunteers were divided into four groups. Each volunteer took a white pill every morning for one year. The contents of the pill taken by the members of each group are shown in the chart below.
17 1. Which statement is a valid inference based on the results? A Sugar reduced the number of colds.B BW may not be effective in the prevention of colds.C BW is always effective in the prevention of colds.D Sugar increased the number of colds.
18 2. What was the independent variable in this experiment? A amount of BW addedB amount of sugar addedC number of volunteers in each groupD color of the pills