Presentation on theme: "INTRODUCTION TO SCIENCE & THE"— Presentation transcript:
1 INTRODUCTION TO SCIENCE & THE SCIENTIFIC METHODHow to do an experiment
2 What is Science?The goal of science is to investigate and understand the natural world, to explain events, and to use those explanations to make useful predictions.
3 Science is an organized way of using evidence to learn about the natural world.
4 What is scientific inquiry? Process scientists use to study the world and develop explanations based on evidence.
5 How is science done?Scientists collect and organize information in a careful, orderly way, looking for patterns and connections between events.
6 Scientists propose evidence that can be tested by examining evidence. Scientists make an observation by using their senses to gather information.
7 Qualitative Quantitative Observations A description Tells how many ColorTexture yellow balloonSizeblue sky puffycloudTells how manyTotal amountLengthMass objects2 starstemp: 1500 C
8 What do scientists do?Scientists use the scientific method which is a series of steps used to solve a problem or answer a question.
9 What Are Scientific Methods? Order of the steps can vary- not always the same*Can use all steps or just some-it depends on the investigation!*Steps can be repeated
10 Scientific Method Steps The problemForm a hypothesisDesign a controlled experimentProcedureCollect and record dataAnalyze the dataState your conclusion
11 The Problem Start with a problem that can be solved scientifically. What makes a boat float?The problem is always written as a question.Why? How? What?How would you find the density of an object?The problem is measurable.ResearchWhat do you know?What do you need?
12 A scientific explanation, an educated guess, or an answer to a question Based on prior knowledge or observations that can be tested in an experimentWritten in the formIf …. then …. becauseIf a boat can float then its density is less than water because it does not sink.Form a hypothesis
13 Prediction vs Hypothesis Predictions ARE NOT hypotheses! A hypothesis explains what did happen. A prediction is made before you test a hypothesis. *It is what you think will happen *It states a cause and effect When predictions are shown to be true, the hypothesis is supported.
14 Testing the Hypothesis Can test a hypothesis by doing an experimentFactoranything in an experiment that can influence theoutcome
15 Design a controlled experiment The factors in an experiment that can bechanged are called variables. Some exampleof variables would be : changing thetemperature, the amount of light present, time,concentration of solutions used.A controlled experiment works with onevariable at a time. If several variables werechanged at the same time, the scientist wouldnot know which variable was responsiblefor the observed results.
16 between a controlled group with an experimental group. An experiment is based on the comparisonbetween a controlled group with anexperimental group.These two groups are identical except for onefactor.The control group serves as the comparison. Itis the same as the experiment group, exceptthat the one variable that is being tested isremoved.The experimental group shows the effect of thevariable that is being tested.
17 Describe the control group. Describe the experimental group. PRACTICEExample: In order to test the effectiveness of a new vaccine, 50 volunteers are selected and divided into two groups. One group will be the control group and the other will be the experimental group. Both groups are given a pill to take that is identical in size, shape, color and texture.Even though the volunteers are given identical looking pills, the control group will not actually receive the vaccine.Describe the control group.Describe the experimental group.What variables are kept constant?What variable is being changed?This group will receive the vaccineThe size, shape, color, and texture of the pill.Whether or not the pill contains the vaccine.
18 The factor being tested Identify thevariablesThe factor being tested
19 Independent & Dependent The changes that occur because of the experimentIt can be observed and measuredIs the data that is collectedComes after “then” in the hypothesisWhat is being tested or changedOnly have ONEComes after “If” in the hypothesisControl – the standard to which the outcome of the test is compared.
20 Procedure Make a plan. Test the hypothesis by changing one variable. Collect materials and tools.Follow directions.Gather information through observation, making measurements.
21 Collect and record data Use senses to make any observationsCollect measurable informationRecord information on a data tableDoes the data support or not support the hypothesis?Collect and record data
22 IMPORTANT REMINDER!! Repeat, repeat, repeat! *The more times an experiment is done, the more data there is to support or disprove the hypothesis
23 Interpret or explain the data with graphs or pictures Analyze the dataInterpret or explain the data with graphs or pictures
24 ConclusionA logical answer that addresses the original problem, analyzes the data and determines whether or not the data supports the hypothesis.Experiments must be repeated over and over. When repeated, the results should always be the same before a valid conclusion can be reached.
26 Practice Problem The problem Some paper airplanes fly farther than others.What type of paper makes the best airplane?
27 Practice Problem The problem Some paper airplanes fly farther than others.What type of paper makes the best airplane?Form a hypothesisIf a paper airplane is made using construction paper then it will not travel so far because construction paper has more mass.
28 IDENTIFY THE VARIABLES Practice ProblemThe problemSome paper airplanes fly farther than others.What type of paper makes the best airplane?FORM A HYPOTHESISIf a paper airplane is made using construction paper then it will not travel so far because construction paper has more mass.IDENTIFY THE VARIABLESIndependent: construction paperDependent: distance plane traveledControl: force thrown
29 QUESTIONS What is the importance of the control? What is the difference between the independent and the dependent variables in an experiment?What is the importance of the control?
30 QUESTIONSWhy is it so important that a scientist accurately describes the procedure used in the experiment?In a “controlled experiment”, why must all of the variables, except one, be kept constant throughout the experiment?