Presentation on theme: "The “Rebirth” of Civilization"— Presentation transcript:
1The “Rebirth” of Civilization The RenaissanceThe “Rebirth” of Civilization
2When was the Renaissance? Although it is hard to find an exact starting and ending date for the Renaissance, most scholars agree it lasts from c – 1550.
3Where was the Renaissance? The Renaissance began in Florence and quickly spread to other parts of Italy, including Rome, Milan, and Naples.It later spread to N. Europe, including Flanders, the Dutch Republic, England, and parts of the HRE.
6What was the Renaissance? Renaissance, French word for "rebirth"What was reborn?? A “rebirth” of civilizationA renewal of interest in classical (Greek & Roman) ideas and ideals and a desire to imitate the classical world Greece & Rome
7What else???A relaxation of strict, church-controlled attitudes toward education, individualism, and action.a time of creativity and change-spirit of adventure & a time of intellectual and economic changes that occurred in EuropeOnly a small percentage of the Middle and aristocratic class population was involvedUsed classical ideas to find man’s purpose within Christian teachings and promote learning of all kinds
8Why did the Renaissance Happen? Florence became a very wealthy state due to trade (esp. in wool) and banking.The reintroduction of “new” works by the Moors ignited an intellectual revolution.
9Why else???The Medici family was extremely wealthy and spent great sums of money in Florence.The church was losing its power & authority in the wake of new discoveries and the Great Schism.
10Other Factors Agrarian economy is becoming a commercial business Workers who survived the plague can demand higher wagesPowerful and wealthy merchant class is growing in the citiesFortunes are being made in banking and trade
11Why else did it happen?Castiglione’s The Courtier: uomu universale skilled in all arts, sciences, handsome, soldier, athlete, poet, student. Also, sprezzatura.Machiavelli’s The Prince: demonstrated how noble princes should lead but sanctioned realpolitik.Printing Presses made works available.
12Why else did it happen?Perhaps what was most important was Humanism—the rebirth of the human spirit.An emphasis on human everyday experience, the here & now!Individual achievement was highly valuedDeveloping an educational background from the classicalThe ”Renaissance “man” or “woman” ideal was the person with talent in many fields.
13Humanism, the Renaissance Spirit A new intellectual movement that started in ItalyStudied classical cultures & writings philosophers Greek and RomansFocused on secular (non-religious) themes not religious;
14Humanists…Believed education could improve oneself and stimulate creativityOpened schools teaching humanities: Greek, Latin, Philosophy, History, Poetry, Grammar and LiteratureWriters of the era focused on topics of ambition and individual success
15Results of HumanismExperienced an age in which artistic, social, scientific and political thought turned in new directionsMore people are concerned with their jobs, money and status.Religion becomes less important in western Europe but maintains its hold in the interior of the continent.Appreciation for the arts as a product of mankind; not just a religious symbol
16Francesco PetrarchKnown as the father of humanism for his restoration of the Latin language and push for the study of classical literatureFirst modern poetPushed for the use of ancient Greek and Roman manuscripts: Homer, Virgil & CiceroHis own writings inspired others like Shakespeare and ChaucerMost famous for his Sonnets to Laura
17Why did the Ren. Begin in Italy? Center of the Roman civilization –had all the remains of the glory that was Rome in architectural and artistic fieldsItalian cities had survived the Middle Ages and grown into prosperous centers of trade and manufacturing.A wealthy merchant class in the Italian city-states stressed education and individual achievement and spent lavishly on the arts.
18The Role of FlorenceLike most city-states, it was a center of banking, trade and manufacturingBecame the cultural center of Europe whose patron influence by the Medici family made it possibleFlorence produced an amazing number of gifted poets, artists, architects, scholars, and scientists.
20Leaders of the Cultural Revolution Medici: Italian banking and political family-ruled Florence for almost three centuries.Through its extensive European commerce and banking, the family became one of the richest in 15th-century Italy.Invited philosophers and writers to their homes and court when in political power.Patronage of the arts became a tradition in the Medici family and encouraged patronage by others in the community.
21Lorenzo the Magnificent A gifted poet in his own right, Lorenzo surrounded himself with the leading artists and intellectuals of his day.One of the largest spenders of the Medici’s for the artsAmong those who enjoyed his patronage were the painters Botticelli, Ghirlandaio and Michelangelo and poets and philosophers.