Presentation on theme: "Reading Beyond the 90 Minute Block"— Presentation transcript:
1Reading Beyond the 90 Minute Block Applying Strategies and Improving Learning Through ApplicationProficient readers monitor their comprehension and apply strategies to help them understand and make sense of text. They read ahead, reread, make connections to other text or experiences. Proficient readers read for pleasure and for purpose but the strategies they use are similar.
2Reading Across the Content Areas It is estimated that 90 percent of adult reading is for information; only 10 percent is for pleasure. (Daggett, 1990)Reading is the gateway to content learning.While concept acquisition in content areas usually comes first through exploration, manipulation or experiences text still plays an important part in expanding or connecting the learning.
3Silent or Round Robin reading Traditional FormatNew FormatPrereading activities Activating Prior Knowledge Discussion Predictions Questioning Brainstorming Setting purposeReading assignment givenACTIVE readingSilent or Round Robin readingActivities to clarify, reinforce, extend knowledgeTraditionally in content areas, students have been assigned information on the concept. Students then read the text and then spend time in discussion or activity around the main ideas of the text.Looking at brain research, as well as the research on the needs of ELL and struggling readers, we now know that front loading instruction before students interact with text will provide students with stronger comprehension, and increased chance of transfer to other related ideas, experiences or concepts.A second refinement in our instruction is that text is seldom assigned; instead reading text is an active or guided process, by supporting students inapplying decoding strategies in the context of content materials,using partner reading, andrereading to build deeper understanding.Discussion/Activity to see if students learned main concepts, what they “should have” learned
4Three Interactive Elements of Reading Skill level, investigations, motivation, cultural and familial experiencesThe reader:what the reader brings to the learning experienceThe climate: the learning context or environmentThe text features:the characteristics of the written textThree elements work together to determine the meaning a reader constructs from text.The reader makes meaningful connections between new information and experiences they have already had building a schema or framework of knowledge. They draw on this schema to make inferences, predictions, organize thoughts and reflect on new information. A reader’s disposition also influence his/her reading.Text features. For learners to make meaningful connections they must have a number of skills:locating and identifying what information is most important,recognizing relationships that exist among ideas presented in the textorganizing all of these ideas into a mental pattern. Teachers need to systematically teach the students how to use the features an author has placed in the text.The teacher only has control of the climate in which the learner experiences text in school. Lighting, noise, sense of safety, acceptance, promotion of the value of learning are considerations a teacher must address to create a environment that enhances learning.Using partner reading for content area text helps relieve the fear of being asked to read aloud text that is to difficult for a learner. Preteaching vocabulary words before the learner approaches the text, and building background knowledge through exploration of the concept are ways to create a positive environment for reading content area text.Turn to your partner and discuss how the three areas are affected in reading instruction vs. when students access content area text.School or grade levelcommunity agreement,transfer fromreading instructionto application in contentText, FormAndFeaturesIrvin, Judith L. Strategies to Improve Reading in the Content Areas. Florida State University.
5What strategies did you use to read successfully? The boys’ arrows were nearly gone so they sat down on the grass and stopped hunting. Over at the edge of the wood they saw Henry making a bow to a small girl who was coming down the road. She had tears in her dress and tears in her eyes. She gave Henry a note which he brought over to the group of young hunters. Read to the boys it caused great excitement. After a minute, but rapid examination of their weapons, they ran down to the valley. Does were standing at the edge of the lake, making an excellent target.Read the passage silently to yourself.Discuss at your table the strategies you used to read this passage successfully.Keep the suggestions covered until you bring them back together.Teaching reading in the content areas is not about teaching the basic reading skills.The focus is on teaching students how to use reading as a tool for thinking and learning. Learning and reading are active processes. Readers construct meaning as they read.Effective readers:make predictions,organize informationinteract with the text.evaluate the ideas they are reading about and compare them to what they already know or have experienced in the world.For instance if you had never bowed to anyone, or shot a bow, then Lil’ Bow Wow might have been your reference for b-o-w. Effective readers know how to modify their reading behaviors when they have problems understanding what they read.What strategies did you use to read successfully?Syntax, context, background knowledge, rereading, vocabulary building
6Accessing Text Before During After Set a purpose Activate prior knowledgePreview the readingIntroduce important vocabularyDuringMake connectionsCheck your understandingIdentify confusing parts-use fix up strategiesAfterReread to find out things you might have missed the first time throughReflect on what you have learnedA distinction between reading instruction in the 90 minute block and content area reading is that in the content areas the investigation, operation, experiment, or activity often occurs before the learner ever encounters the text.In science students would perform an investigation, reflect upon it and then the teacher may choose to extend the learning by having them read science stories with a related theme.The concept development is done prior to the reading; this enables the learner to make connections and build a schema. Text then becomes the support or another connecting experience to further the learner’s knowledge of the concept or event.Therefore, when we speak of the before, during and after we are speaking of right before the learner encounters the text, while the learner is reading and after the learner has finished reading the text.
7Before Set a purpose Activate prior knowledge Preview the reading Activate Prior Knowledge and Set A Purpose for ReadingFigure Out What is ImportantOrganize KnowledgeMake InferenceFind out the Meanings of Unknown WordsAsk QuestionsVisualizeSet a purposeActivate prior knowledgePreview the readingIntroduce important vocabularyContent area instruction involves teaching students to deliberately use cognitive strategies to gain meaning and understand text, and to do so across a variety of texts and disciplines.By addressing the needs of prior knowledge, preteaching vocabulary, setting the purpose and addressing text features we can support strong comprehension of the content.
8BeforePrior KnowledgeThe questions that p______ face as they raise ch_____ from in______ to adult life are not easy to an_____. Both fa____ and m_____ can become concerned when health problems such as co____ arise any time after the e_____ stage to later in life. Experts recommend that young ch______ should have plenty of s____ and nutritious food for healthy growth. B_____ and g_____ should not share the same b____ or even sleep in the same r____. They may be afraid of the d______.Learners draw on their schema to make inferences, predict, organize, and elaborate on text. When given new information students try to make sense of it by connecting it to experiences and knowledge they already have.Activity- Read the passage to yourself silently.What strategies did you use to decide the missing words?Context clues, personal knowledge…Now listen to the complete passageThe questions that poultry men face as they raise chickens from incubation to adult life are not easy to answer Both farmers and merchants can become concerned when health problems such as coccidiosis arise any time after the egg stage to later in life. Experts recommend that young chicks should have plenty of sunshine and nutritious food for healthy growth. Banites and geese should not share the same barnyard or even sleep in the same roost. They may be afraid of the dark.The passage illustrates that deriving meaning is not simply a matter of reading the words on the page. In order to comprehend a reader must connect the information with previous knowledge filling in any gaps so that the text makes sense to them.Billmeyer, Rachel and Mary Lee Barton. Teaching Reading in the Content Areas: If Not Me, Than Who? Aurora: McREL (Mid-continent Regional Education Laboratory),1998
9Reading with a Purpose Fundamental purposes for reading to learn BeforeReading with a PurposeFundamental purposes for reading to learnTo grasp a certain messageTo find important detailsTo answer a specific questionTo evaluate what you are readingTo apply what you are readingTo be entertainedActivityLook at the passage and decide how you would set the purpose for students.Studies show that readers who have misperceptions about a topic often overlook, misinterpret, or don’t remember text information , however incorrect that might be. (Anderson and Smith 1984; cf. Barton, 1997).Using prereading strategies can expose any misperceptions and then the teacher can address them before beginning to read text.Activity- Using the passages in their handouts have participants select one, read it through and decide how they could set the purpose for the reading. Page 3 in the handouts gives suggested questions to ask before reading.The types of responses that you would lift up would be to name or list the objective, pose guiding questions for reading this material.
10Organizational Preview Checklist BeforeOrganizational Preview ChecklistReview the text features, deciding which will help your students understand the content:TitleFirst & last paragraphs of the chapterHeadingsAny words set in bold type or repeatedText boxesPhotos, charts, or pictures & their captionsThe physical features of text cannot be ignored. Learners need to understand why words are in italics or bold print, how to read charts, and captions, and the use of text boxes.The nature of specific text forms and features can affect rate and style of reading . As a support we have a copy of Text, Forms and Features, by Margaret Mooney. It provides teachers with:The function of different texts.Features of different text types.Definitions of text features and their functions
11Teach Organizational Patterns BeforeTeach Organizational PatternsChronological SequenceComparison and ContrastConcept/ DefinitionDescriptionEpisodeGeneralizationProcess/Cause-EffectAuthors spend a great deal of time deciding the organizational structure that will best convey their ideas. They may use a compare and contrast, a descriptive pattern, or a concept/ definition. Learners need to be familiar with these patterns to enhance their comprehension. When students understand the organizational pattern of an unfamiliar text they can target what types of strategies would be efficient. As adults few of us read our college textbooks word for word. We relied on text features and understanding of organizational patterns to determine our reading focus. As teachers, identifying the pattern helps us to choose what type of comprehension scaffolding we will use in the lesson. The seven common organizational patterns found in informational text are:Chronological sequenceComparison and ContrastConcept/ definitionDescriptionEpisodeGeneralizationProcess/cause-effectHandout 4 gives a list of key words that suggest these organizational patterns.Activity: Look back at the passage you selected. Using handout 4 decide what type of organizational pattern the author chose.
12How to Activate Prior Knowledge BeforeHow to Activate Prior KnowledgeK-W-LPredictionsConcept MapPreteach VocabularyWhen we hear the term “ Activate Prior Knowledge!” it may suggest that students come equipped with a magic button that we push and they instantly have memories or experiences they can draw upon to make connection to the text.“Readers whose prior knowledge is accessible and well-developed remember more from their reading than readers whose prior knowledge of the topic is limited.” (Anthony and Raphael)Model the math version of K-W-L on chart paper. Have staff turn to a math problem sample in the handouts and try the K-N-W-S, handout 18, with the sample problem in their small group.
135-10 words a week cumulative Before“ A word is not a crystal, transparent and unchanged; it is the skin of living thought and may vary greatly in color and content according to the circumstances and time in which it is used.”Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr.5-10 words a week cumulativeBased on the audience/text/content/ concept you are teaching:Tier One words can have a quick verbal association made to explain them that will not interrupt the flow of content. For example- The little pig lived in a hut. A hut is a type of house.Tier Three words may be specific to a content area and are used in a limited manner. Like Tier One words they can be given a quick verbal explanation.Example: The pig lived in a hut with a veranda. A veranda a is a type of porch.The learner would interact with Tier Two words again in many texts.They are words that define the concept or main idea. In order to gain a deep understanding of these words direct instruction using many strategies is necessary.For a learner to gain full conceptual knowledge of a word and use it at multiple levels it must be viewed and interacted with repeatedly.Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. was born on March 8, 1841 in Boston, Massachusetts, and was named for his famous father, the writer and physician. His keen intellect, humor, and ability to express himself helped Holmes direct American thought as a member of the United States Supreme Court for over 30 years.In content areas 3T words can become 2T words
14VOCABULARY STRATEGIES BeforeVOCABULARY STRATEGIESWORD PARTSMorphemic AnalysisWORD ASSOCIATIONSIllustrate & AssociateCATAGORIZATIONSemantic Features MapCONTEXTRead Alouds & QuestioningClunk BugCONCEPTFrayer ModelConcept Definition MapVocabulary plays a major role in improving comprehension. Choose two of the strategies to model on chart paper for staff as you present.Morphemic analysis ( Handout 5) – Sixty percent of science words come from Latin and Greek root words. MA requires students to take multisyllabic words and break them into meaningful parts. Students should discuss the meaning of each part and decide the meaning of the new word in its entirety. Then, students should use the word in their own sentence.Illustrate and Associate ( Handout 7) -This strategy is intended to help students learn vocabulary words through a visual association (picture), an antonym or a non example of the word, and a sentence that uses the vocabulary word to convey a personal meaning. This involves a more concrete connection to the vocabulary words, which can create more meaning than dictionary definitions.Semantic Features ( Handout 10) SF helps students discern a term’s meaning by comparing its features to those of other terms that fall into the same category or class. When students have completed a semantic feature matrix, they have a visual reminder of how certain terms are alike or different. Students find that the matrix provides a good summary of concept features.The Clunk Bug ( Handout 8) This strategy requires students to identify the vocabulary word and to search the sentence in which the word is located for clues to the word’s meaning. Students use the clues to construct their own definition of the word.The Frayer Model ( Handout 9) The Frayer model is a word categorization activity. Using this model, students analyze a word’s essential and nonessential attributes and also refine their understanding by choosing examples and non-examples of the concept. In order to understand completely what a concept is, one must also know what it isn’t.Concept Definition Maps ( Handout 6) These are graphic organizers that help students understand the essential attributes, qualities or characteristics of a word’s meaning. Students must describe what the concept is, as well as what it isn’t and cite examples of it. This process gives students a more thorough understanding of what the concept means, includes, and implies.
15ActivityUsing your passage choose 3 words and an activity you could use to teach them.Use one of the strategies from the previous page as you would expect students to use it after it had been modeled and done with guided practice.
16During Make connections Check your understanding Use fix up strategies Graphic OrganizersCheck your understandingGet the GistReciprocal TeachingPartner ReadingUse fix up strategiesWhat am I doing to make meaning while I read?What did I just read?What will I learn next?In order to clarify understanding teachers need to plan for comprehension checks while students are engaged in text.Having students use a graphic organizer or note taking procedure as they read helps provide a focus.Using engagement activities such as:Get the GistReciprocal TeachingPartner Readingprovide scaffolding for struggling readers.Providing students with tools for accessing difficult text can facilitate understanding of the concept.
17What is most important about the who or what? Who or what is it about?Retelling the gist of a story is an important thing to do when you tell someone about what you have read. A good retell gives the most important points and gains the interest of the listener.A good gist should:• Answer “Who or what is it about?” and “What is most important about the who or what?”• Be a paraphrase (in your own words)• Contain 10 words or less
18Fix Up Strategies Reread the unclear part Identifying the confusing partsReread the unclear partThink about whether you’ve seen the word before, where, and in what context.Look for familiar chunks and sound it outLook for little words and big words in the wordSubstitute a word that makes sense in the sentence.Try to connect the unclear part to something you already know.“Fix up strategies” is a term we use for strategies we have modeled, practiced and applied with students in reading instruction. These strategies are now ready for the reader to own and apply in their independent and content area reading.Because of the nature of content area text, reteaching how to apply these strategies in the I do, we do, you do format would facilitate transfer of the skill. These skills should follow from using our primary cueing strategy first, then on to confirming strategies.Rereading the unclear parts provides the learner with one more chance to clear up any inadvertent mistakes (reading too fast, loss of attention…)The three strategies under reread are all word recognition based. They ask students to rely on their knowledge and practice with decoding and semantics. These strategies would be used for when word recognition breaks down.The bottom three strategies are more syntactical and would be used when comprehension breaks down.Reread the sentences before the unclear part.Ignore the unclear part and read on to see if it gets clearer.
19Reciprocal teaching Prediction Clarification Questioning Summarizing Reciprocal teaching has been extensively researched over the years. Sixteen studies were used to do a meta-analysis (Rosenshine & Meister, 1994). Studies took place in grades 1-8. Good readers did very well and poor readers did even better beginning at grade 4. This indicates that multiple strategy instruction might be best starting at the upper elementary grades. King (1999) found that the dialogue did help students construct meaning in her study with science text. The reciprocal teaching model provided a framework for the students to understand the text. She also found that "when teachers consistently and clearly modeled all four RT strategies, provided examples of meaningful dialogue, offered guided practice to the students, and gave praise and feedback, student dialogues mirrored that of their teachers. Conversely, when teacher modeling was neither clear nor consistent, or if instruction was lacking in any of the four above areas, student dialogue mirrored those weaknesses, which influenced their ability to elaborate on and apply test ideas." Refer to handout s for examples of how reciprocal teaching can be used.Summarizing
20AFTER THE READINGCheck for understanding; decide if the purpose was metDraw conclusion/evaluate informationApply learning“Comprehension is extracting and constructing meaning from text.” Improving Comprehension Instruction pg. 25.We have often thought of reading comprehension as only taking place after the text has been read. But in reality effective readers are making meaning of text before, during and after engaging in the act of reading print.The importance of involving students in learning activities at the end of text reading is to provide them with a system of or a support to cement the learning.When students are engaged in meaningful activities, such as connecting text to prior learning experiences or knowledge, making inferences or evaluating the information, then we have scaffolded their learning to higher levels of understanding in Bloom’s Taxonomy.What did I just learn?What were the main ideas?What do I need to do with this information?
21Suggestions For Teaching Comprehension Strategies Before, During, AfterComprehension StrategiesPage #PreK-12-34-6D, AGet the GistXB, D, AReciprocal Teaching13-15DPartner ReadingAQuestion Answer Relationships21Five Step Problem Solving19B, DQuestion GeneratingGraphic OrganizersThink Links22Venn Diagram23Story Frames24Note Taking11Story Map16 & 17This chart can be a resource to determine the appropriateness for specific strategies inrelationship to grade levels and text types. State several examples—ReciprocalTeaching is generally not used in Pre K-2 grades.
22Start with how things are same or similar. Then add more as needed. Science FramesThe ____ and the ___ are the same because they both______. In addition, they______________.Start with how things are same or similar. Then add more as needed.They are different because the ____________________, but the ____________________. Also, the____________________ but ______________________These science frames are used to help students do a compare and contrast from a reading.Story frames are an initial level of scaffolding for students who have limited language usage or difficulty organizing their thinking in writing.Story frames should be used as a transitional strategy as students build the organizational pattern in their own words.Use the Story Map in handout 16 &17 and discuss how the focus changes if the topic is social studies, science or literature.Explain how they are different. You can compare the same property or characteristic in the same sentence.Betsy Rupp Fulwiler, K-5 inquiry Based Science
23Be the LearnerUsing your passage select an appropriate comprehension strategy to apply to the text.On chart paper create a visual model of your comprehension of the passage using the strategy.Activity: As small groupshave them use the passage select an appropriate comprehension strategy to apply to the text.then create on chart paper a visual model of your comprehension of the passage using the strategy.share out how they applied the strategy to the content area.
25Layers of Understanding Math Story Problems Decoding and VocabularyAbility to analyze the problemSelection of strategy/ applicationAbility to justify or explain thinkingExtend or generalizeTo help students understand the information in a math story problem many layers are involved.The first involves decoding and vocabulary. Is the student able to read the text independently and do they have the conceptual understanding of the words and math vocabulary in the text?The second layer is the ability to analyze the problem; identifying what is wanted , identifying needed information and ignoring non essential information.The third layer is the selection of strategy and application of the strategy. Examples of problem solving strategies are to draw a picture, act it out, use a model, look for a pattern, make a table or chart, simplify a problem, guess and check, make an organized list…The fourth layer is the students’ ability to justify or explain their thinking and validate their answers.The final layer in any learning no matter the content is to have students’ extend or generalize their learning to other situations.These same layers apply need to be considered in all content areas.
265-Step Problem Solving Restate the problem/question Find needed data: Plan what to do:Find the answer:5. AnswerCheck -Is your answer reasonable?When guiding students through the problem solving process, use content and context that is familiar to them.Restate the problems in your own wordsThe focus is on what does the problem want me to find out? What do I need to do to find out? (Make a plan.)Model this with a math problem.Handout 19
27Learning with Math Stories by Grade Level PresentationDiscussionMath stories can draw students into an imaginative world of mathematics where ideas come alive and application can be more than facts and formulas. Two popular genres of mathematics stories are the math mystery and math fable, fairy tale or tall tale. When exploring math stories with students we can think in terms of these key elements:Presentation of the story/information.Discussion of what we learned from the story.Applying and extending the information from the story.Handout 20 is an outline of an approach to using math stories in the classroom.Model a short selection read aloud using a math story and the guiding questions in the handout. At participant tables have math story books and after you model have them read a math story and discuss how they could use the format on the handout for math read alouds.Math can be encountered in everyday reading in the community. Such as election results, scores, addresses, recipes, ticket costs or temperature. By looking at these examples, teachers can provide students with opportunity to encounter math in contextual settings.Apply&ExtendAdapted from Reading and Writing to Learn Mathematics: A guide and Resource Book (p. 67)
28Activate prior knowledge Preview the reading Set a purposeActivate prior knowledgePreview the readingIntroduce important vocabularyReread to find out things you might have missed the first time throughReflect on what you have learnedThe demands for literacy skills are high and increasing.Higher levels of literacy are associated with a wide range of positive outcomes, including higher levels of health, leisure reading, political participation and reading to children. (Smith, 1998) pg. 20 Improving Reading Comprehension, Block, Gambrell and Pressley.Reading is the gateway to content learning. As educators we must keep these important elements in front of us as we plan instruction, the school day, and content area instruction.This slide summarizes the RACA information.As Trainers spend a few minutesreflecting on how you could summarize the RACA information just presentedDetermining how you will ask your staff to summarize their learningMake connectionsCheck your understandingIdentify confusing parts-use fix up strategies
29According to a study done by the NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) in 2000, 4th graders who read almost everyday or read three or more books in a month scored in the upper percentile on the NAEP Reading Assessment Measure. In comparison, those 4th graders who either never/hardly read or did not read any books in a month consistently scored in the lowest percentile over the past 8 years. Unfortunately in 2001, according to NCES (National Center for Education Statistics), only 35 percent of 4th graders reported reading everyday or almost everyday. The preferred vision is that all kids read everyday at school & home, but the current reality is that many kids are finding other things outside of school to do other than read. We need to develop a mind set in our students that reading in-school and outside of school is a priority. It not only provides practice in the process of reading, but exposes them to a broad scope of topics and situations that can provide a base from which future reading experiences are enriched and made more meaningful (Watkins & Ewards, 1992).
30Intentional Independent Reading The Application of SkillsThis is a great book!“It is not enough to simply teach children to read; we have to give them something worth reading. Something that will stretch their imaginations something that will help them make sense of their own lives and encourage them to reach out toward people whose lives are quite different from their own” (Paterson, 1995)Intentional Independent Reading is designed to help students increase the time they spend reading and give them continued opportunities to expand and practice reading strategies. (Fountas & Pinnell, 2001) While there have been correlational studies done which support the findings of Fountas & Pinnell, the National Reading Panel failed to find clear and convincing research that goes beyond the correlation that independent reading has an impact on student achievement. Because of the inconclusive research, independent reading must be conducted outside of the 90 minute block.
31Practice & Performance A fourth grader was asked, “What is reading?” His response, “Reading is thinking. When you read, you have to figure out the words and what they mean. Sometimes it’s easy. Sometimes it’s hard” (Harvey & Goudvis, 2000).During the 90 minute block our priority is to teach all of our students the essential skills and strategies to become proficient readers. Through explicit instruction, modeling and guided practice students will continue to polish their skills of the 5 components. Then the skills can be applied to the many genres of text, so that the students will become “readers who are thinkers”. The key is to have the students take their knowledge across all content areas, in essence allowing them to utilize their skills on their own. It is similar to the idea that if basketball players spend countless hours practicing and crafting their skills (i.e. dribbling, shooting & passing) but never get to use those skills in an actual game, how will they know if they are getting better? Consequently, we want to have students feel the joy of reading for pleasure and purpose.We want them in the game not just on the practice field-- sometimes they will win by 30 pts and sometimes it will be a buzzer beater.
32The Big Debate Independent Reading Silent Reading Although many teachers view the terms Sustained Silent Reading and Independent Reading as interchangeable, there are features of Intentional Independent Reading that distinguish it from Silent Reading. Historically S.S.R. was a time in the daily schedule where students read or sat quietly for a specified amount of time while the teacher modeled by reading his or her favorite book. The purpose of this portion of the module is to reshape, redefine and improve S.S.R. so that it becomes Intentional Independent Reading. We will examine & expand the roles of the teacher & student so that there is more focus and intent during this time.In your groups discuss the characteristics of S.S.R. as you remember them and compare them to what is currently happening in your building, grade level or classroom.
33Intentional Independent Reading vs.. Sustained Silent Reading S.S.R.I.I.R.Student chooses any book to readBook may be above reading levelNo checking by teacherNo writing involvedStudent chooses any book to read with teacher guidanceStudent reads mostly “Just-Right” booksTeacher monitors comprehensionStudent keeps a reading recordThis chart is an example of what some S.S.R. classrooms might include and it illustrates some of the differences between Intentional Independent Reading and Sustained Silent Reading. To say that the “only” things happening during either S.S.R. or I.I.R. time are listed on the slide would be erroneous and it is important to understand that there are other variations to either one.Some of the differences between S.S.R. & I.I.R. are:The student chooses a book that seems custom-made for him or her. The child, with minimal assistance, can read and understand a text that is of high interest. The teacher may, at times, provide some guidance in varying the book selection the student makes so that different genres are experienced.During the I.I.R. time the teacher & student have the opportunity to engage in conversation regarding the student’s perceptions of the book as well as clarifying & explaining the text’s meaning.The accountability of the student is demonstrated through a learning log, reading record or a notebook. The purpose of this student activity is to provide students with an opportunity to document their comprehension for the I.I.R. time. This “record keeping process” should not be confused with aimlessly writing in a journal for 5 minutes without any purpose. Using one of the summarizing strategies from ELI 1 as the framework, the students writing will have the necessary structure in place so that the teacher will know if the student is reading for meaning.Thinking about what you discussed regarding S.S.R. take a few minutes and compare S.S.R. & I.I.R.? What are the similarities? What are the differences? How is your method for I.I.R. different from the slide? Then share with your table/ grade level group.
34The Effects of Independent Reading Improves Reading PerformanceIncreases VocabularyBuilds Background KnowledgeI.I.R. improves reading performance:The reading of meaningful, connected text is strongly correlated with reading achievement (Anderson, Wilson & Fielding 1988).Students who read independently become better readers, score higher on achievement tests in all subject areas, and have greater content knowledge than those who do not (Krashen 1993; Cunningham and Stanovich 1991 & 1993).Unless children read substantial amounts of print, their reading will remain laborious and limited in effectiveness (Allington, 1984; Stanovich, 1991).I.I.R. has been a good predictor of reading achievement especially for students in grades 2-5 (Anderson, Wilson & Fielding, 1988).I.I.R. increases vocabulary:Independent reading is probably the major source of vocabulary acquisition beyond the beginning stages of learning to read (Nagy, Anderson, & Herman 1987).Students in grades 3-12 learn about 3,000 new words a year; Therefore, students who read widely can learn the meanings of thousands of new words each year (Nagy, Anderson & Herman 1987).I.I.R. builds background knowledgeStudents’ reading ability is dramatically influenced by the amount of interrelated information they have about the topic about which they are reading. Through Independent Reading students are exposed to diverse topics and information which they can then use in future reading (Anderson & Pearson, 1984).
35In 1994, students who reported watching at least 4 hours of television daily displayed lower average reading scores than their peers who watched less (NAEP, 2000). Helping children develop reading skills is a responsibility that needs to be shared by the family and the school, but what that “shared responsibility” looks like is not always the ideal.
36Where & When In-School Out-of-School Teachers face many challenges today and finding time to support children’s literacy development through Intentional Independent Reading is a main one. As we have seen earlier the data that supports the fact that children aren’t doing enough reading is alarming.Providing students with opportunity to apply the skills learned during the 90 minute block should be a priority for teachers. Where and when this opportunity takes place (inside or outside of school) and the pros & cons of each will be the focus of the the next couple of slides but won’t be the only question that is discussed. In addition, what the students are doing during this time will be a main focus.
37Outside the School Day Instructional Time Not Affected Home & School ConnectionPersonal Reading MaterialsThere are pros and cons by having students read independently at home. For instance:The school day and more specifically the instructional time won’t be affected.Increased time spent reading out-of-school was associated with higher reading achievement (Anderson, Wilson, and Fielding 1988).Reading at home could provide a connection between home & school in that parents/adults could assist the student by reading together and becoming more involved in their child’s learning.At home the reading materials could have a more personal appeal than those in a school library. The obvious drawback with this however, is that the materials at home might not fit the category of a “Just-Right” book.
38Inside the School Day Environment Variety of Materials Available Selecting a “just-right” bookBuilding a community of readersBy having the I.I.R. time in the school we know that we can control better the environment, reading materials & student accountability.The classroom offers structure, support and a place that is conducive to reading with little distractions.It is also important to remember that for some of our students reading at home is not the “best environment” for applying their reading skills and thus the school setting offers a better location.The reading materials available to the student could be more diverse and more importantly fit the mold of a “just-right” book.Student accountability can be directly monitored by the teacher through reading logs and personal conversations.There is the opportunity for a classroom to become a community of readers, learning and growing together.Taking time out of the school day to do I.I.R. will have a direct impact on the other instructional areas. The daily schedule is already packed full and teachers are finding it challenging to get everything done in a 6 hour day, therefore is there time for I.I.R.?
39Community AgreementsIf the teacher cannot control the home environment, what are some strategies teachers can suggest to parents that would help provide a location that’s conducive to reading?If having access to a “Just-Right” book or any book is limited or non-existent, what are some ways teachers can provide their students with materials to read at home?Does student accountability have to be the responsibility of the parent?Even though having students do their I.I.R. at home has its benefits there are some things to consider such as the school & home connection, “Just-Right” books and student accountability. At your table groups discuss the advantages and disadvantages of I.I.R. and where it could take place, then come to some community agreements using these questions as the focus of the discussion.
40It’s Not About Time!What we need to focus on is what is happening during Intentional Independent Reading in the classroom, not how long should it last.According to research one of the key ingredients in an effective reading program is having time for independent reading outside of the 90 minute block. There are conflicting reports as to the amount of time that should be devoted to independent reading. Times range anywhere from minutes (Hansen, 1987) to minutes (Fountas and Pinnell, 2001).Our concern, should not only be how long I.I.R. should last, but what the student and teacher are doing during this time. For example the struggling reader who is learning how to become a strategic reader, will need frequent, sustained periods of reading text with guidance or feedback.
41Essential I.I.R. Components Book ChoiceTeacher’s RoleStudent ParticipationMaking sure that students are comprehending and enjoying the texts they are reading is critical for students’ reading success.One key factor in ensuring success is the book the student chooses to read during I.I.R. time. If students are to grow as readers “Just-Right” books are a necessity.The teacher’s role during SSR has traditionally been as a behavior monitor and/or an example of what silent reading looks like.As for the student, the 20 minutes that was designated to S.S.R. time was a great opportunity for the skilled reader to enjoy a text but for the other students it was a time to “appear” to be reading.
42“The Just-Right Book” It looks interesting. I can read most of it. After I’ve read the book I can tell someone what it’s about.Many teachers encourage readers to choose a book according to how hard or easy it is to read. Readability is an important factor when readers choose books. Students need to choose books they can read, but just reading easy books will give few benefits. So, in many ways reading is a bit like eating. If we only eat ice cream, we won’t stay healthy, and if we only choose easy books we won’t get better at reading (Harvey & Goudvis 2000). The subject, author, content and reason to read, however, are just as critical in book selection. The “Just-Right” book is characterized by the following:Students can confidently read and understand the text with minimal assistance (they have applied the 5 Finger Rule see handout 27 & 28):0 fingers--too easy, student and teacher conference about the book1-3 fingers--just right4-5 fingers--quite hard, go slow! Student and teacher conference about the book5+ fingers--too hard for now, student selects another bookIt provides the student with the opportunity to apply the strategies they’ve been learning, as well as become familiar with new vocabulary, genres & writing styles.Students have ownership over the materials they choose to read which then fosters a more positive perception of reading.As a table group discuss the strategies you use with kids that help find that “Just-Right” book.
43Role of the Teacher Establishes an environment which: Promotes accountability as students are recording what they read.Provides student-teacher interactions to form a community of readers.Allows students to select the “Just-Right” book of various genres.If we want students to become proficient readers they will need to practice the reading skills they are taught. Practice without feedback, however, is not as efficient as monitored practice. During I.I.R. the role of the teacher needs to be more than telling the students to “take out a book and read it.” The teacher needs to monitor each student by providing them specific feedback. One way to provide feedback is through a conversation. During this brief student-teacher conversation the importance of asking genuine questions can not be minimized. Students need to be treated & valued as another reader. Also, the conversation can provide an opportunity for the teacher & student to understand the reader’s process, celebrate goal achievements and personally reflect on the text as it relates to:Text-to-selfText-to-worldText-to-text
44Student Participation Book SelectionAccountabilityBe a participant in the conversationWhen we teach reading we are teaching children to do many things but if the students are not provided with the opportunity to apply what we have taught them, then in many ways we are expecting them to “learn how to swim without actually swimming” (Calkins, 2001).During I.I.R. students have the opportunity to continue to improve their reading through their participation. For example, students will be able toMake the connections between text ideas and their own experiences.Monitor their strategies & rate to meet their purpose and materialIncrease the time they read.Apply the specific reading skills learned.Improve their reading competence.Evaluate & reflect on the text they read through reading logs and/or classroom conversation.As a table or grade level group discuss which summarizing frame from the comprehension module you will agree to use for student accountability.
45The Challenge Awaits Us Take some time to reflect on the I.I.R information just presented and then as a table/ grade level group discuss what structures you can put into place (inside school & outside school) that effectively meets the needs of the students.Have groups share out their ideas.