Presentation on theme: "AN INTRODUCTION TO THEORY AND RESEARCH"— Presentation transcript:
1AN INTRODUCTION TO THEORY AND RESEARCH SOCIAL NORMS 101AN INTRODUCTION TOTHEORY AND RESEARCH
2SOCIAL NORMS APPROACH TO AT-RISK BEHAVIOR PREVENTION An increasingly popular universal prevention technique based upon sociological/psychological theory and supported by an extensive empirical studyAn “environmental” approach based upon sharing accurate information with studentsCompatible with other prevention strategies
3PURPOSE OF THIS PRESENTATION Introduce the theoretical and research underpinnings of social norms strategies and the reasons they workHelp identify the best way to use the social norms approach as described in the Social Norms Tool Kit with your studentsProvide practical implementation advice for developing a local social norms campaignProvide information on evaluating the success of a school’s social norms campaign
4SOME DEFINITIONSSocial Norms Approach: a proactive prevention program that communicates the “truth about peer norms in terms of what the majority of students actually think and do, all on the basis of credible data drawn from the student population that is the target.” (Perkins, 2003).Misperception: the “gap between the perceived and the actual.”Bullying: “systematically and chronically inflicting physical hurt and/or psychological distress on one or more students” (National Education Association, 2008).
5SOME DEFINITIONS, CONT.Bullying: “systematically and chronically inflicting physical hurt and/or psychological distress on one or more students” (National Education Association, 2008).Binge Drinking or Heavy Episodic Drinking: The consumption of four or five drinks in a row in a short period of time.
6AN ENVIRONMENTAL FOCUS Contemporary, evidence-based prevention strategies emphasize the importance of environmental strategies for effecting positive behavior change
7THE THEORY BEHIND SOCIAL NORMS STRATEGIES Our behavior is influenced by our perceptions of what others think and do … BUTThese perceptions are often inaccurateIf we can correct the “misperceptions” that exist, over the course of time behavior should reflect the more accurate (and healthier) norms
8EVIDENCE FOR THE IMPACT OF NORMS ON BEHAVIOR Social Comparison Theory:We continuously compare ourselves to others in our social group. If discrepancies exist, we become motivated to reduce the discrepancies, thus, bringing our behavior into congruence with the norm, Festinger (1957).
9SOCIAL COMPARISONS ARE OFTEN BIASED “Pluralistic ignorance”…Everybody else is different from me! I am the only one who is NOT doing it…(“Gee, I’d better do it.”)But in reality there is typically much greater similarity between one’s self and others
10SOCIAL NORMS MAY BE ESPECIALLY INFLUENTIAL FOR YOUNG PEOPLE Peers become increasingly influential startingin late childhood (beginning at age 10 or so)Peer group norms are likely to dictate muchpre-adolescent and adolescent behaviorAdolescents want and need to be accepted by their peers, and will work toward this goal
11THE REALITY OF MISPERCEPTIONS Over 50 published studies document the existence of misperceptions (National Social Norms Institute, University of Virginia)Earliest was Perkins and Berkowitz (1986) – College students believed peer norms for alcohol consumption were much higher than they actually were
12A MORE SPECIFIC EXAMPLE Perkins, Haines & Rice (2005);76,145 college students from 140 colleges and universities nationwide71% misperceived the amount of alcohol consumed by peers, overestimating both the quantity consumed by peers and the frequency with which they drank
13MIDDLE AND HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS ARE SIMILARLY AFFECTED Perkins and Craig (2003)Web-based survey of 8,860 middle and high school studentsActual alcohol use in middle school was 7%; Perceived use in middle school was 23%Actual use in high school was 29%;Perceived use in high school was 60%
14MISPERCEPTIONS ABOUT BULLYING Perkins and Craig (2006)Survey of 578 middle school students63% did NOT tease others; 83% believed that their peers DID74% did NOT push or hit others; 83% believed thattheir peers DIDThe gaps noted in the figures above clearly indicate the existence of misperceptions in this population
15WHY DO MISPERCEPTIONS EXIST? The “vividness effect” – behavior that stands out in some way is better remembered and more often discussedMedia depictions and even educational material perpetuate the notion that “everyone” is drinking
16MISPERCEPTIONS AND BEHAVIOR Empirical research confirms that misperceptions correlate with behaviorIn a nationwide sample of college students, student perception of the drinking norm was the strongest predictor of personal consumption (Perkins et al., 2005)Among 29,976 NJ college students surveyed from , those who misperceived the peer norm as 7+ drinks were twice as likely to drink heavily themselves (LaMastro & LaMastro, 2007)
17MISPERCEPTIONS AND BEHAVIOR: MIDDLE AND HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS “Higher peer perceptions of alcohol use were associated with subsequent escalations of personal drinking.” (HS students) (D’Amico et al., 2001)Estimates of peer alcohol use predicted one’s own alcohol use one year later (Marks et al., 1992)
18THE KEY QUESTION: Does reducing or correcting misperceptions change behavior?Given sufficient time and a strong social norms marketing campaign, research suggests that the answer is “YES”Research with college students revealed a 10% campus-wide decrease in high-risk drinking over the campaign period (Perkins & Craig, 2002)The percentage of college students with Blood Alcohol Content over .05% declined 8% during the campaign period (Foss et el., 2003)
19AMONG MS AND HS STUDENTIn the “MOST of us” campaign in Montana: 10% of year olds in the campaign counties initiated smoking, versus 17% in control (non- campaign) countiesReductions in high-risk drinking among MS students was associated with accurate perceptions of peer norms following a two-year campaign,(Botvin et al., 2001)
20NATIONAL INSTITUTE ON ALCOHOLISM AND ALCOHOL ABUSE: “Initial results from programs adopting an intensive social norms approach are promising. Several institutions that persistently communicated accurate norms have experienced reductions of up to 20% in high risk drinking over a relatively short period of time…together these findings provide strong support for the potential impact of the social norms approach.” (NIAAA, pg. 13, 2002)
21REFERENCESBotvin, G.J., Sussman, S. & Biglan, A. (2001). The Hutchison smoking prevention project: A lesson on inaccurate media coverage and the importance of prevention advocacy. Prevention Science, 2, D’Amico, E.J. (2001). Progression into and out of binge drinking among high school students. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 15, Festinger, L. (1957). A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance. Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA.
22REFERENCESFoss, R., et al. (2004). Social norms program reduces measured and self-reported drinking at UNC-CH. The Report on Social Norms: Working Paper #14. Little Falls, NH, Paper Clip Communications.LaMastro, V. & LaMastro, R. (2007). Looking back, looking forward: Social norms programming at New Jersey state colleges and universities, 1997 to Monograph, New Jersey Higher Education Consortium.
23REFERENCESMarks, G., Graham, J.W., & Hansen, W.B. (1992). Social Projection and Social Conformity in Adolescent Alcohol Use: A Longitudinal Analysis. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 18,NIAAA (2002). How to Reduce High Risk College Drinking: Use Proven Strategies, Fill Research Gaps. Final Report of the Panel on Prevention and Treatment, Task Force of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Washington, DC. National Institutes of Health.
24REFERENCESPerkins, H.W. & Berkowitz, A.D. (1986). Perceiving the community norms of alcohol use among students: Some research implications for campus alcohol education programming. International Journal of the Addictions, 21,Perkins, H.W. (Ed.) (2003). The Social Norms Approach to Preventing School and College Age Substance Abuse. San Francisco, CA. Jossey- Bass.
25REFERENCESPerkins, H.W., Haines, M.P., & Rice, R. (2005) Misperceiving the college drinking norm and related problems: A nationwide study of exposure to prevention information, perceived norms, and student alcohol misuse. Journal of Studies on Alcohol,Perkins, H.W., & Craig, D.W. (2003). The imaginary lives of peers: Patterns of substance use and misperceptions of norms among secondary school students. In The Social Norms Approach to Preventing School and College Age Substance Abuse. H.W. Perkins (Ed.), San Francisco, Jossey-Bass.