Presentation on theme: "The Who Behind Pharmaceutical Misuse and Abuse – What We Know About Pharmaceutical Abusers Linda Simoni-Wastila, PhD Associate Professor University of."— Presentation transcript:
The Who Behind Pharmaceutical Misuse and Abuse – What We Know About Pharmaceutical Abusers Linda Simoni-Wastila, PhD Associate Professor University of Maryland Baltimore School of Pharmacy Acknowledgements: Jerry Lawler, PhD Research Associate University of Maryland Baltimore School of Pharmacy Ashley Slagle, MS Doctoral Candidate and Graduate Research Assistant University of Maryland Baltimore School of Pharmacy National Institute of Drug Abuse (NIDA grant DA R21 DA017730) Montgomery County Public Schools Safe and Drug-Free Schools 2005 Symposium June 20, 2005
Purpose of this Presentation Describe non-medical use and abuse/dependency of prescription drugs Examine national prevalence of use in adolescents aged 12-17 Briefly describe patterns of prescription drug use and abuse/misuse Examine some factors associated with prescription drug use and abuse/dependency Conclude with some considerations for prevention strategies
Some Definitions and Context Much of the information presented here is based on a nationally-representative database called the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) conducted by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA)
Some Definitions and Context Todays focus is on prescription drugs that have addiction potential. Four types: –Opioid Analgesics (OxyContin; Dilaudid; morphine; Demerol; Percodan/Percocet) –Minor Tranquilizers (Valium; Halcion; Ativan) –Sedative-Hypnotics (Seconal; Amytal) –Stimulants (Ritalin; Dexedrine)
Some Definitions and Context Non-Medical Use = use that is not medically-mandated, i.e. sharing of medications, using just to get high, recreational use, any use other than prescribed
Some Definitions and Context Abuse = use resulting in –Decline in work, school, or home performance –Legal problems –Use in risky situations –Continued use despite social/personal consequences (APA, DSM-IV, 1994)
Some Definitions and Context Dependency = use resulting in –Tolerance –Withdrawal symptoms –Decline in normal activities –Unsuccessful attempts to cut down or control use –Use for longer period or larger amounts than intended –Use consumes lot of time to acquire and/or recover from effects –Continued use despite knowledge that it caused physical and/or psychological problems (APA, DSM-IV, 1994)
Who is Using Prescription Medications?
Scope of the Problem Substance use and resultant disorders have always been problems with youth Recent evidence suggests that use of most substances, including alcohol, have been declining among adolescents However, non-medical prescription drug use (NMPDU) has been increasing
Scope of the Problem Q: Who is using prescription drugs in a non- medical context? A: EVERYONE!!!!!! –6.3% - 14.8 Million - of US population 12 years of age reported at least 1 episode of non-medical prescription drug use in past-year (2002 NSDUH) –Three age groups at particular risk: Older folks (50 and older) Young adults aged 18 – 25 Younger folks aged 12 – 17 Younger folks aged 12 – 17
Percent of Adolescents Reporting Any Past- Year Non-Medical Prescription Drug Use
Percent of Adolescents Meeting Clinical Criteria for Prescription Drug Abuse or Dependency Among Those Reporting Past- Year Non-Medical Use
The Real Numbers 2.33 million children aged 12-17 used at least 1 prescription drug in a non-medical context in 2003 –1.9 M Opioid analgesics –600,000 Tranquilizers and/or sedatives –575,000 Stimulants Of these past-year users, more than 350,000 meet clinical criteria for abuse and/or dependency on prescription drugs
Patterns of NMPDU Among past-year NMPD users, 38.3% of adolescents only reported NMPDU and no other substance use (Simoni-Wastila et al, 2005) Odds of binge drinking, marijuana use, and other illicit substance use are higher among NMPD users versus those who only medically use Rx drugs or who have no prescription drug exposure (Boyd et al, 2005)
Prevalence of NMPDU Use (2002 NSDUH) Simoni-Wastila et al, 2005
Prevalence of Poly-NMPDU (2002 NSDUH) Simoni-Wastila et al, 2005
Factors Associated with NMPDU Sociodemographics: gender; age; race/ethnicity Medical exposure Family and peer usage/availability Socio-cultural (Quintero et al., 2005) : –Stress –Academic demands –Social-recreational –Less risky than hard substances
Percent of Males and Female Adolescents Reporting Any Past-Year Non-Medical Prescription Drug Use Males Females
Percent of Males and Females Meeting Clinical Criteria for Prescription Drug Abuse or Dependency Among Those Reporting Past- Year Non-Medical Use Males Females
Source of Prescription Medications Peers and family (McCabe et al, 2005) –Males obtain from peers; females from family Medical exposure (McCabe et al, 2005) –Females more likely than males to report prior lifetime medical use of opioids Internet? Other sources? –Do risk factors vary by source? –Do use patterns vary by source?
Medical versus Non-Medical Use To prevent problematic use of prescription drugs with addiction potential, we need policies and strategies that limit abuse and diversion without needlessly limiting appropriate and adequate medical access and use.
A Few Questions Research Must Ask – and Answer – for Effective Prevention Patterns of Use? –Are prescription medications a DOC, or are they used with other substances? Why do young people favor prescription drugs? Risk and Protective Factors? –How do risk and protective factors differ in NMPDU-only versus poly-substance use? By gender? By race/ethnicity and other factors? Sources of Prescription Medications? –Where and how are adolescents obtaining prescription drugs? Medical versus Non-Medical Use? –What is the balance?