Presentation on theme: "Title I Teacher Training Module"— Presentation transcript:
1Title I Teacher Training Module No Child Left Behind Act of 2001[Notes to Presenter]This training module is intended to present a high-level overview of Title I to teachers.Presenters should have a working knowledge of Title I, such as an NJDOE county or regional office representative, district professional development supervisor, school principal, etc.Note that there are additional Title I training modules that address accountability, parental involvement, scientifically based research, and school improvement in more detail.The Notes are set up as a reading script, which indicate in bold type instructions for the presenter for reading or indicating the text on the slides. Some additional background information is provided that can also be read to the audience or used as reference material.
3PurposeTo deliver support to Title I teachers who interact with Title I students, helping them to achieve high academic performance. This module will do the following:Provide a high-level framework of No Child Left Behind and Title I requirements.Present the new accountability requirementsProvide instructional strategies based on data analysis.Identify requirements and activities for parental involvement.[read introductory paragraph on slide]This training module will do the following:[indicate bullets]Provide teachers with a high-level framework of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), in particular Title I requirements.Present the new NCLB accountability requirements.Offer ways to use assessment data to analyze areas that need improvement and implement alternative instructional strategies.Identify requirements and activities for involving parents in their child’s education.
4Role of TeachersTeachers play a pivotal role in the process and successful implementation of NCLB.First line of contact as the main link with parents.Assess students’ needs and performance on a daily basis.Evaluate programs’ success (tools, strategies, materials, programs & activities).Direct activities of paraprofessionals.[read slide]Research tells us that…“Teachers link together students, other teachers, school administrators, families, and community members to foster the learning success and healthy development of their students. …“Research on resilience indicates that caring teachers who express concern for students and act as confidants, role models, and mentors can contribute to children’s capacity to overcome personal vulnerabilities and environmental adversities. …“Caring parents and teachers who act in concert can strengthen the effects of educational and social interventions. When there are positive relationships among parents and teachers, the resources of the home and school contexts are amplified, providing a greater likelihood of positive outcomes for children.”Excerpted from “Teacher Relationships,” by Margaret C. Wang and Geneva D. Haertel, Spotlight on Student Success, A digest of research from the Laboratory for Student Success. No. 309Handout: “Teacher Relationships”Source:
5Contents of Title I Teacher Training Module General Overview of No Child Left Behind (NCLB)Title IUnderstanding AccountabilityData-Driven Analysis and AssessmentData-Driven Decision-MakingInstructional Strategies for Student AchievementScientifically Based ResearchParental InvolvementHighly Qualified Teachers and High-Quality Professional DevelopmentResourcesThis presentation will provide teachers with the following:A general overview of NCLB, its requirements and expectationsTitle I, Part A requirementsNew Jersey’s Single Accountability SystemHow to analyze assessment dataThe use of assessment data for setting goalsClassroom strategies using scientifically based or evidence-based programs and activities to increase student achievementWhat is scientifically based researchHow to involve parents in the learning processProfessional development requirements and opportunities for teachersResources available to help teachers accomplish their important mission in the classroom
6Title I Teacher Training Module Understanding NCLB
7No Child Left BehindThe No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) frames the structure of accountability in education to help all children reach proficiency by 2014.NCLB embodies four key principles of education reform: Accountability, Flexibility, Choice, and Methodology.NCLB[read first bullet]NCLB is the reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (ESEA) and Improving America’s School Act of 1994 (IASA). NCLB was enacted on January 8, 2001, and brought sweeping reforms for educational systems in the United States. NCLB includes significant changes in areas related to accountability and also focuses on new options for parents through school choice and supplemental educational services, and higher qualifications for instruction and professional development resources.[references second bullet]NCLB embodies four key principals or pillars of education reform:Accountability: Strengthen accountability by requiring states to implement statewide accountability systems covering all public schools and students.Flexibility: Give states and local education agencies (LEAs) options in their use of federal education funds in exchange for strong accountability of results.Choice: Significantly increase the choices available to the parents of students attending Title I schools that fail to meet state standards.Methodology: Emphasize teaching methods and programs that are scientifically based and proven to work.Handout: “A Toolkit for Teachers”Sources:NCLB:
8Purpose of Title IHelp children who are low achievers meet high academic standards.[read slide]To meet the intent of NCLB, Title I funds are used for supplemental programs and resources for educationally and economically disadvantaged students; the funds are directed to students who are at the highest risk for school failure.The goal is to enhance opportunities for increased student achievement, helping these students meet high academic standards.Title I represents the largest federal elementary and secondary education program. Ninety percent of districts across the United States receive Title I funds. Approximately 450 districts in NJ receive Title I funds.State allocations are based on census poverty figures. All states are required to provide Title I funds to districts through a statutory formula based on the number of children ages 5 through 17 from low-income homes, foster homes, institutions for neglected or delinquent children, and TANF (Temporary Aid to Needy Families) families. Districts, in turn, allocate Title I funds to schools based on criteria such as free lunch, reduced lunch, census data, TANF, among others.Sources:NCLB Section 1124Title I, Part A Program Fact Sheet, USDE, Office of Elementary and Secondary Education, August 2002:Allocation Charts:
9Title I RequirementsUnder Title I, states and districts are required to close the achievement gap by the following methods:Targeting dollars to low-performing students.Placing a “highly qualified” teacher in every classroom.Improving the qualifications of paraprofessionals.Title I strengthens assessment and accountability, encouraging states to use their own assessments, use the results to improve teaching, and offer incentives for students and schools to improve their educational performance.[read slide introduction and first bullet]Title I supports schoolwide and targeted assistance programs. To qualify for schoolwide programs, a school must have at least 40 % poverty. Targeted assistance focuses on the lowest performing students.By targeting dollars to the poorest communities, resources are provided to accommodate schools where outdated textbooks and inadequate support for teachers and curriculum development may be overwhelming challenges for children and teachers.[read second bullet]All Title I teachers must meet the qualifications of “highly qualified” to ensure that students are receiving the best possible instruction.[read third bullet]Title I paraprofessionals who work with disadvantaged students must also meet criteria to ensure they are qualified.Sources:NCLB Section 1112Title I Web site
10Title I Requirements (cont.) Offering professional development for staff.Using instructional practices and programs based on research.Involving the parents in their child’s education.[read first bullet]Sustained professional development for teachers and principals encourages opportunities to deepen their understanding of subject areas, master high performance methods to help children learn, and work more closely with parents.[read second bullet]Title I-supported programs and activities must be based in scientific research. They must be shown to work―to ensure that students will achieve academically. Student progress must be measured and results must demonstrate that the achievement gap is closing.[read third bullet]Title I requires districts and schools to work closely with the parents by including them in decisions affecting their children, notifying them of the status of their children’s school, and offering a choice for transfer or supplemental services if the school is identified for improvement.
11Title I FundingDetermined by number of low-income students in district.Districts allocate their funds to schools based on the poverty level.Schools serve the lowest-performing students to help them achieve academically.Title I has very specific eligibility requirements.[read first bullet]Allocations are determined based on poverty figures, so school districts with a larger low-income population receive larger Title I allocations.[read second bullet]Districts then calculate which schools have poverty levels that are the same or higher than the district as a whole. Funds are generally targeted to these schools, using several criteria that are defined in the NCLB legislation.[read third bullet]Once a school receives Title I funds, the lowest-performing students benefit, regardless of their economic status.Source:NCLB Section 1113
12Title I Funding (cont.)Eligible low-performing private school students in attendance area of eligible school are also served.Targeted assistance or schoolwide programs.Districts apply for funds through the NCLB Consolidated Application process.[read first bullet]Private school students are also served based on poverty criteria and location within an eligible school attendance area. For more information on private school equitable service, see the Title I Services to Eligible Private School Children Non-Regulatory Guidance, October 17, 2003.[read second bullet]The school determines the services the students will receive. Funds can be used for in-class or extended-day activities, and to pay for instructors, supplies, professional development, and parent involvement activities that supplement the school’s regular program. In targeted assistance programs, specific low-performing students receive Title I services. Schoolwide programs may blend funds to benefit all students.[read third bullet]Eligibility is determined by completing the NCLB Consolidated Application. The district completes this application and submits it to the NJDOE annually.Source:Title I Services to Eligible Private School Children Non-Regulatory Guidance, October 17,
13Title I Teacher Training Module Understanding Accountability: A Teacher’s Perspective
14Understanding Accountability New Jersey’s Single Accountability SystemState AssessmentsDisaggregating Results for SubgroupsAYP CalculationsSanctionsThis section briefly discusses the requirements of NCLB in regards to student accountability, the roll-out of state assessments, measuring student progress to subgroup level, adequate yearly progress (AYP) calculations, and possible sanctions for schools that do not meet the state requirements.
15Single Accountability System New Jersey has a Single Accountability System, in compliance with NCLB requirements, to ensure that all schools will make “adequate yearly progress” (AYP) toward meeting the state’s academic achievement standards.Students must score “Proficient” or “Advanced Proficient” levels on state assessments.[read first bullet]Accountability is central to the success of NCLB. States are required to set high standards for improving academic achievement in order to improve the quality of education for all students.Under NCLB, New Jersey has established a system of accountability that includes rewards and sanctions. This system of accountability is applied to all public schools and districts in the state. State regulations clearly articulate the requirement for the annual evaluation of all public schools to determine if they are meeting standards. (N.J.A.C. 6A:30-1.1). The standards by which these schools will now be evaluated, as outlined in the Accountability Workbook, are based upon Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) indicators, that is, state assessment results for the total student population plus subgroups (economically disadvantaged, race/ethnicity, students with disabilities, and limited English proficiency) in mathematics, language arts literacy, and science, when it is assessed.Definition of AYP: AYP is a method of determining progress of student success within the local school. AYP is used to establish subgroup and school compliance with the incremental goals of success and achievement of the state’s established benchmarks for success.AYP is a calculation based primarily on state assessment results. Also taken into account are the test participation rate and the secondary indicators.Starting Points: Under NCLB, states are required to use spring 2002 assessment results to identify the starting points for the AYP standard for Title I schools and districts.[read second bullet]Proficiency benchmarks must be met for schools to make AYP. A percent of proficiency chart is shown later in this presentation.Source:Accountability Workbook
16Single Accountability System (cont.) AYP is based on assessment results and participation plus secondary indicators• Attendance for elementary and middle schools• Graduation rate (starting in ) for high schoolsStudent participation in state assessments must meet 95%.The goal is that all students will be proficient by 2014.[read first and second bullets]Secondary indicators―attendance for elementary and middle schools and graduation rate for high schools must also be met along with 95% participation in the state assessments for a school to make AYP.[read last bullet]This means all students, including students with disabilities who are placed out of the district. AYP under the new federal goal is 100% proficiency by Some students with disabilities can take an Alternate Proficiency Assessment (APA). Limited English proficient students are also counted, but they may receive accommodations, if necessary.
17State Assessments: Percent of Proficiency Starting Point 20032005200820112014Language Arts LiteracyElementary Grades 3, 4, 568758291100MiddleGrades 6, 7,858667687H.S.Grade 1173798592MathematicsElementaryGrade 4, 55362Grade 7, 83949High School55647486This slide shows the proficiency benchmarks that must be met by New Jersey schools in order to make AYP. The benchmarks increase until 2014, when all students must meet proficiency standards.A single statewide accountability system must be applied to all public schools and districts. All schools and districts include both Title I and non-Title I schools and districts. Student assessments are administered and the accountability system is applied in the same manner for all schools, regardless of receipt of Title I funds. All public school students are included in the state accountability system.A student attending the same school for a “full academic year” must be included when determining if a school has made AYP. (A full academic year is defined as from July 1 to June 30.)All student results are included in the school-level report card.Source:Accountability Workbook
18State AssessmentsStudents are currently tested in grades 3, 4, 8, and 11 in language arts literacy (LAL) and mathematics using the state assessments.Other grades will be phased in. By the school year, LAL and mathematics tests will be administered in every year in grades 3 through 8 and once during grade spanScience will be tested in all the above grades by the school year.[read first bullet]In school year , the grade 3 assessment was a pilot. It will no longer be in pilot in ; the results will be applied to the AYP calculations.AYP calculations apply to language arts literary and mathematics. Although science will be tested, the results are not calculated for AYP.[read second and third bullet]Source:Accountability Workbook
19State Assessments (cont.) An Alternative Proficiency Assessment (APA) will be administered to eligible students with disabilities.LEP students must be tested.[read first bullet]The APA can be applied to only 1% of students. It is linked to a student’s Individual Education Plan (IEP). Students with disabilities who are moved from their neighborhood school to receive services at other schools are included in their home school’s accountability process.[read second bullet]LEP students must also be assessed, with accommodations. English language proficiency tests are administered to all LEP students. Districts can substitute one of these three tests for first-year LEP students for the LAL portion of the state assessment to determine participation. LEP students enrolled in a language assistance program plus those who have achieved English proficiency and exited from the language assistance for up to two years are used for the AYP calculations.
20AYP Calculations Subgroups Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) is calculated for total district, total for each school, and the following student subgroups for each content area (LAL/math/science):Racial/ethnic groups, including White, African-American, Hispanic, Asian/Pacific Islander, and Native AmericanStudents with DisabilitiesEconomically DisadvantagedLimited English proficient (LEP)[read slide]The Aggregate: AYP must be met for the whole (the aggregate) and for each of the subgroups (disaggregated).AYP Increments−Example: In order to meet AYP goals for , the school population as a whole, as well as specific subgroups of students, are expected to meet or exceed the proficiency targets.Safe Harbor allows a school or subgroup to meet AYP by decreasing their failure rate by at least 10% over the previous year.Subgroups: Subgroups have a minimum of 20 students. For students with disabilities, the state has received a waiver from the United States Department of Education (USDE) for a minimum of 35.Handout: “The ABCs of AYP” www2.edtrust.org/edtrust/product+catalog/special+reportsSources:NCLB Section 1111(b)Accountability Workbook
21Purpose of Disaggregating Data AccountabilityClosing the Achievement Gap[read slide]Prior to NCLB, test scores were based on the aggregate or general school and district student populations (“general” population did not include LEP or students with disabilities). Lack of achievement within a specific subgroup could have been lost when assessment results were merged with totals for schools and districts. By disaggregating the data, schools and districts can evaluate whether a specific group of students is not achieving academically.Even high-performing districts/schools may find they do not meet AYP because one subgroup has not met AYP. Schools and districts are now being held accountable for the proficiency of each and every student. By examining the data, programs and activities can be applied to help specific low-performing students, or groups of students, close the achievement gap.Sources:NCLB Sections 1111 and 1112Title I Accountability Training Module
22Sample School Results School A Elementary School LAL AYP Yes/NoSafe HarborMath AYP Yes/NoAll StudentsYes = 75%Yes = 65%African-AmericanNo = 49%NoNo = 39%HispanicNo = 50%Yes = 56%No = 45%Native AmericanAsian/Pacific IslanderYes = 70%Yes = 58%WhiteYes = 60%LEPNo – 35%Economically DisadvantagedStudents with DisabilitiesNo = 41%No = 38%AYP Targets for School YearNJ ASKLAL 68%Math 53%__________________This sample chart shows proficiency results for the performance indicators required for making AYP.School A is an elementary school. These are their test results for NJ ASK. The school had 8 academic performance categories where it did not meet AYP. For example, the African American subgroup population had only 49% proficiency rate for LAL where the state standard was 68%. The same is true for math, where only 39% achieved proficiency against a standard of 53%.Safe Harbor is a measure of improvement. Safe Harbor was achieved in areas where there was a 10% decline in partially proficient categories from the previous year. In other words, the Hispanic subgroup improved their percentage of proficiency by at least 10% over the previous year.Source:NJPEP:New Jersey Professional Education Port
23Sample School AYP Profile This is an actual profile that each school receives from the Office of Title I that identifies AYP status. The chart identifies which indicators were met. There are 41 indicators, counting the secondary indicator. For 2004 preliminary results, the secondary indicator was not calculated.Note: More discussion will follow in the Assessment section of this presentation.Handout: AYP Chart
24What Happens if AYP Is Not Met? Year 1 − Early Warning: School did not meet AYP in at least one content area for total student population or one or more subgroups.Year 2 − Choice: School did not meet AYP in the same content area for two consecutive years. School identified as in need of improvement and must offer intradistrict choice and prepare School Improvement Plan.Year 3 − SES: School did not meet AYP again; it must continue to offer choice and also offer supplemental educational services (SES).When a school misses AYP, it begins the improvement continuum. When AYP is missed for two consecutive years or more in the same content area, various sanctions are applied.[read first bullet]Early Warning: There are no sanctions for the early warning year; however, the school should take note that there are deficiencies that need to be addressed. If AYP is missed again the following year in the same content area, the school will become a school in need of improvement (SINI) and move into choice status.[read second bullet]Choice: A school in need of improvement must send a letter to all parents of children in the school advising them of the opportunity to transfer their children to another public school in the district that is not in need of improvement and can accommodate the child. Certain interdistrict options may be available. The school must complete a School Improvement Plan identifying the actions it will take to improve the school, including parental involvement and professional development. The district is also required to prepare a plan regarding its support of the school.[read third bullet]SES: In lieu of choice options, and for the second year as a school in need of improvement, the district must offer supplemental educational services to the lowest-income, lowest-achieving students in the school in need of improvement. State-approved SES providers are available for these services. The list is posted on the Title I Web site.Source:NCLB Section 1116
25What Happens if AYP Is Not Met? (cont.) Year 4 − Corrective Action: School did not meet AYP again; it must continue to offer choice and SES and also prepare a Corrective Action Plan.Year 5 − Planning for Restructuring: School did not meet AYP again; it must improve academic performance or go into restructure status.Year 6 − Restructuring: School did not meet AYP again; it is identified for restructuring, which could result in state takeover.[read first bullet]Corrective Action: The school must notify parents of the school’s status and continue to offer choice and SES. A Corrective Action Plan must be completed that addresses how the school will correct its deficiencies using parental involvement activities, professional development, programs and strategies, teacher mentoring, and technical assistance, among others. Each corrective action school will participate in the state-sponsored Collaborative Assessment and Planning for Achievement (CAPA) school review process. A ten-member CAPA team of highly qualified educators will conduct the three-day on-site review and submit recommendations for school improvement actions and strategies.[read second bullet]Planning for Restructuring: The school must complete a plan, which might include a new curriculum, replacement of certain staff, etc. Highly qualified professionals (HQP) will provide technical assistance. Parents must be notified of the school’s status.[read third bullet]Restructuring: The school must continue to offer choice and SES and disseminate to the public and parents what corrective action is planned. A major restructuring of the school’s governance will occur.Source:NCLB Section 1116
26Title I Teacher Training Module Data-Driven Analysis/Assessment
27Data-Driven Decision-Making NCLB requires schools to make critical decisions regarding instructional and academic services based on data analysis.Collectively and interactively, data informs schools of the impact of current programs and processes on their students so that decision-making can occur.[read first bullet][read second bullet]Essentially, data is used to inform schools of the impact of current programs and processes so that decisions can be made relative to student achievement. These data can assist schools in understanding the root causes of problems as opposed to just focusing on symptoms. However, hard data cannot always explain the results. Additional types of data may be necessary.Data should be used as a tool during the school’s and district’s annual Needs Assessment. The Needs Assessment is a required element in the NCLB Consolidated Application. The academic improvement resulting from Title I-funded activities must be measured and assessed each year to ensure student achievement.Source:The School Portfolio Toolkit: A Planning, Implementation, and Evaluation Guide for Continuous School Improvement; Victoria L. Bernhardt, Ph.D.; Chapter 4, p ;
28Four Types of Data to Be Gathered There are four types of data that should be gathered:Demographic DataPerceptual DataStudent Learning DataSchool Process DataResource:There are four types of data that schools need to gather and analyze.[read the four bullets]The School Portfolio Toolkit: A Planning, Implementation, and Evaluation Guide for Continuous School Improvement by Victoria L. Bernhart, Ph.D., is an excellent reference that illustrates the process of data analysis. Please refer to chapter 4.1. Demographic Data: Demographic data essentially describes the school context. These data provide the over-arching context for everything that the school does with respect to school improvement. These contextual data show the composition of the students, staff, and community, and how they have changed over time.2. Perceptual Data: Perceptual data essentially communicate to schools about student, parent, and staff satisfaction with the work of the school. Perceptual data can help the school understand what is possible in the big picture of school improvement and what has been done internally to meet school improvement goals.3. Student Learning Data: Student learning data help schools see the results they are getting now. These data tell schools which students are succeeding academically and which are not. They also guide planning, leadership, partnership, and professional development efforts.4. School Process Data: School process data provide staff with information about their current approaches to teaching and learning, programs, and the learning organization. It is these processes that will need to change to achieve different results.Other valuable resources include the School Portfolio: A Comprehensive Framework for School Improvement, (Bernhardt, 1999) and Data Analysis for Comprehensive Schoolwide Improvement (Bernhardt, 1998).Source:The School Portfolio Toolkit: A Planning, Implementation, and Evaluation Guide for Continuous School Improvement; Victoria L. Bernhardt, Ph.D.; Chapter 4, p ; 2002:
29State School Report Card Information on aggregate student achievement at each proficiency levelDisaggregated information by ethnicity, gender, disability status, migrant status, English proficiency, and economically disadvantagedShows a comparison between the actual achievement of each group and the state’s annual measurable objectivesUnder NCLB Section 1111, each state shall prepare and disseminate an annual state report card and meet the following requirements:The state report card shall be concise and presented in an understandable and uniform format and, to the extent practicable, provided in a language that the parents can understand.[indicate first two bullets and read the following paragraph]Student achievement at each proficiency level on the state academic assessments in the aggregate and disaggregated by race, ethnicity, gender, disability status, migrant status, English proficiency, and status as economically disadvantaged.[indicate third bullet and read following paragraph]Information that provides a comparison between the actual achievement level of each group of students described and the state’s annual measurable objectives for each group of students on each of the academic assessments by content area is provided for each district and each school.[refer to charts on slides 22 & 23](continued on next slide)Sources:NCLB Section 1111(h)Report Cards Title I, Part A Non-Regulatory Guidance, USDE, September 12, 2003:
30State School Report Card (cont.) The percentage of students not testedThe most recent 2-year trend in student achievementAggregate information on indicators used to determine AYPAttendance rates for elementary and middle schoolsGraduation rates for secondary school students(continued from previous page)[indicate each bullet as each paragraph is read]The percentage of students not tested, disaggregated by the same categories.The most recent 2-year trend in student achievement in each subject area, and for each grade level, for which assessments under this section are required.Aggregate information on any other indicators used by the state to determine the adequate yearly progress (AYP) of students in achieving state academic achievement standards.Attendance rates for elementary and middle school students.Graduation rates for secondary school students.(continued on next slide)Sources:NCLB Section 1111(h)Report Cards Title I, Part A Non-Regulatory Guidance, USDE, September 12, 2003:
31State School Report Card (cont.) Information on the performance of districts and if they made AYPInformation on the professional qualifications of teachers in the stateWeb site for School Report Cards:(continued from previous page)[indicate bullets and read following paragraphs]The performance of districts regarding adequate yearly progress, including the number and names of each school identified for school improvement.The professional qualifications of teachers, the percentage of such teachers teaching with emergency or provisional credentials, and the percentage of classes not taught by highly qualified teachers, in the aggregate and disaggregated by high-poverty compared to low- poverty schools.[read last bullet for location of all the state’s school report cards]Additional ReferenceUnder NCLB Section 1111(h)(2), districts must issue reports to the public that include the following:1. The number and percentage of schools identified for school improvement under Section 1116(c) and how long the schools have been so identified.2. Information that shows how students served by the district achieved on the statewide academic assessment compared to students in the state as a whole.3. Which schools in the district have been identified for school improvement.4. Information that shows how the school's students’ achievement on the statewide academic assessments and other indicators of AYP compared to students in the district and the state as a whole.The district may include any other appropriate information, whether or not such information is included in the annual state report card.The NJDOE posts the NCLB Report Cards on their Web site.Sources:NCLB Section 1111(h)Report Cards Title I, Part A Non-Regulatory Guidance, USDE, September 12, 2003:NCLB Report Cards:
32Data Reports School-Level Reports District Summary Report Individual Student ReportsThere are several helpful School-Level Reports that teachers can use for examining student data. They can usually be found in the principal’s office. A report is available for each content area of each state assessment.There is also a District Summary Report for each content area of each assessment.Individual Student Reports provide data at the student level.
33School-Level ReportsThese reports can be found in the principal’s office.Notes to the presenter:Examine all components of the report including the number of general education, special education, and limited English proficient students.Compare that number to the number of valid scores.Review the number of students and the overall percentage of students in each of the following three categories: partially proficient, proficient, and advanced proficient.Review the total possible points and the actual performance points in each of the clusters: writing, reading, interpreting text, and analyzing/critiquing text.Review the form to learn the successes and deficiencies of student progress (as a total group and with the individual groups).This information can be used to influence what happens in the classroom; it can inform curriculum and instruction. The revelation of successes and areas of need should be examined by not only the grade level being tested, but also the grade level above. Teachers will have a better sense of their students’ needs.Handout: Paper copies of the school-level reports.
34School-Level ReportsThese reports can be found in the principal’s office.Notes to the presenter:Examine all components of the report including the number of general education, special education, and limited English proficient students.Compare that number to the number of valid scores.Review the number of students and the overall percentage of students in each of the following three categories: partially proficient, proficient, and advanced proficient.Review the total possible points and the actual performance points in each of the clusters: numbers sense & concepts and applications; spatial sense and geometry; data analysis, probability, statistics, and discrete math; patterns, functions, and algebra; knowledge; and problem-solving skills.Review the form to learn the successes and deficiencies of student progress (as a total group and with the individual groups).This information can be used to influence what happens in the classroom; it can inform curriculum and instruction. The revelation of successes and areas of need should be examined by not only the grade level being tested, but also the grade level above. Teachers will have a better sense of their students’ needs.
35School-Level ReportsThese reports can be found in the principal’s office.Notes to the presenter:Examine all components of the report including the number of general education, special education, and limited English proficient students.Compare that number to the number of valid scores.Review the number of students and the overall percentage of students in each of the following three categories: partially proficient, proficient, and advanced proficient.Review the total possible points and the actual performance points in each of the clusters: life science, physical science, and earth science.Review the form to learn the successes and deficiencies of student progress (as a total group and with the individual groups).This information can be used to influence what happens in the classroom; it can inform curriculum and instruction. The revelation of successes and areas of need should be examined by not only the grade level being tested, but also the grade level above. Teachers will have a better sense of their students’ needs.
36District Summary Report The summary report shows the total number of students who were tested, and of those, how many were general education, special education, and limited English proficient students.In addition, the student population is divided into subgroups of gender, ethnicity, economic status, and migrant status.Also shown are the percentages of students who were partially proficient, proficient, and advanced proficient in each of the above-mentioned categories.The percentages of proficient and advanced proficient are added together to determine whether a district/school has made adequate yearly progress according to the state benchmarks.The handout shows the breakdown at the school level.NCLB reporting requirements indicated that subgroups with more than 20 students are reported to the public, except for the special education subgroup. There must be over 35 students in order to report those results.Handout: “Preliminary Performance by Demographic Groups − School”
37Analysis of School-Level and Individual Reports Analyze the results of the proficiency levels and the cluster reports in order to determine the strengths and deficiencies of the following:CurriculumTeaching strategiesClassroom environmentCultureParental supportStudents’ affective needs[read slide]If there are noticeable deficiencies in any areas, there need to be discussions and an examination of curriculum and instructional strategies.Sometimes other factors affect performance.
38Other AssessmentsBeginning of school yearEnd of school yearMid year
39Tools for School Improvement Planning The Annenberg Institute for School Reform has a Web site that provides links to surveys and using data for school improvement.[read slide]Handouts from Annenberg site entitled “Using Data” and “Tools.”
40Title I Teacher Training Module Instructional Strategies for Student Achievement
41Test Preparation – Providing Tools Use Core Curriculum Content Standards as the basis for curriculumRely on the support of scientifically based research programsConsult the list of approved Title I activities in the NCLB reference manualThere are strategies teachers can use to help their students be prepared for testing.[read first bullet]The assessments concentrate on language arts literacy, mathematics, and science.[read second bullet]Scientifically based research programs are those that have been demonstrated to be effective through rigorous scientific research.[read last bullet]Title I programs and instructional strategies must be research-based.Additional ReferenceComments below excerpted and summarized from What Is Scientifically Based Evidence?, Valerie Reyna, Office of Educational Research and Improvement.NCLB defines scientifically based research as “research that involves the application of rigorous, systematic, and objective procedures to obtain reliable and valid knowledge relevant to education activities and programs.” As it is in the medical profession, the use of scientific research as a basis for educational practice will become essential. The current trend is to use and identify scientific models that prescribe a solution to academic deficiencies through research and randomized studies. Education is increasingly becoming a science based upon hypotheses and correlation to academic achievement. Educational companies and agencies are developing scientifically based research processes that have been proven through longitudinal and short-term studies.(continued on next slide)Handout: “Title I, Part A Authorized Activities”:Source:What Is Scientifically Based Evidence?, Valerie Reyna, Office of Educational Research and Improvement, presented at the USDOE Working Group Conference, “The Use of Scientifically Based Research in Education,” 2/6/02:
42Test Preparation (cont.) Reference the test specifications for the NJ ASK, GEPA, and HSPAUse sample test items and rubrics throughout the yearIncorporate assessment experiences in the classroom that simulate state assessmentsProvide several picture prompts and other writing tasks to be done in a limited time frame(continued from previous slide)[read the first bullet]Test specifications are posted on the NJ Professional Education Port (NJPEP) Web site atThe types of questions that will be asked on the state assessments and the percentage of each type are indicated there.Sample test items and the scoring rubrics are also on the NJPEP Web site. Students should see examples of responses for each scoring category.[read the rest of the bullets]Assessment experiences should include vocabulary that students will see on the test (e.g., compare and contrast, response, restate, etc.)Train students to read and follow directions.Train students to complete ALL steps of a task.(continued on next slide)Source:
43Test Preparation (cont.) Provide open-ended questionsSimulate the physical test setting several times throughout the yearDiscuss rubrics with the students and use them in your scoring(continued from previous slide)[read first bullet]Open-ended questions include giving an opinion and supporting it, questions that have more than one possible answer and supporting the answer.[read second bullet]It is important that students have these assessment experiences throughout the year and not just in the weeks prior to the state assessment.[read third bullet]Students may also become involved in designing rubrics after they are more familiar with their organization and use.Handouts with sample test activities and information from NJPEP.Source:NJPEP Virtual Academy:
44Strategies for At-Risk Students Examine the nonacademic factors that may be affecting performanceMaintain high (but not frustrating) expectationsUse differentiated instruction strategies and assessmentIntegrate strategies across the curriculumInclude cognitive strategies[read slide]Some helpful Web sites include the following:The National Research Center on English Learning and Achievement cela.albany.eduAssociation for Supervision and Curriculum DevelopmentNew Horizons for LearningUniversity of Victoria gateway.uvic.ca/clic/differentiated.htmlCenter for Substance Abuse Prevention Model Programs modelprograms.samhsa.govAdditional sites are listed on the “Resources for Teachers” handout.
45Strategies for Limited English Proficient (LEP) Students Use academic content to teach the language skills of listening, speaking, reading, and writingSheltered EnglishUsed in an integrated settingEach class has a language objective and a content area objective[read slide]The New Jersey English Language Proficiency Standards are available on the NJDOE Web site at Included are progress indicators, classroom tasks, goals, and standards. The classroom tasks provide examples of assessable activities for grade-level clusters. The document is helpful for teachers to identify curriculum objectives and follow-up and assessment activities.See resource list (handout) for Reading First and other programs.Handout: “Resources for Teachers”Sources:Center for Applied Linguistics:
46Strategies for Students with Disabilities Programs should be organized to promote the same high expectations for achievement established for nondisabled studentsAll programs, regardless of setting (general education class, resource center, special class) should provide access to the district’s comprehensive general education curricula, materials, and assessments as well as supplementary services provided to other students (e.g., tutoring)[read slide]At a minimum, programs should provide the same uninterrupted instructional time devoted to instruction in the CCCS as that provided to nondisabled students, unless the student’s Individualized Education Program (IEP) specifies an adjustment.Students should receive a variety of instructional and assessment strategies and adaptations in order to benefit from and demonstrate progress in the CCCS (e.g., adapted teaching strategies, classroom organization, instructional group size, instructional materials, equipment, student response, and direct instructional support by another teacher or paraeducator).Instructional materials and technical assistance resources to support the instruction of students with disabilities are available through the Office of Special Education’s Learning Resource Centers at:Additional ResourcesThe following are a few Web sites that may be helpful:ERIC:International Journal of Special Education:About Special Education: specialed.about.com
47Title I Teacher Training Module Scientifically Based Research
48Scientifically Based Research Programs Title I programs must beResearch-basedProven to workTitle I supports programs, activities, and strategies that are proven to work.Programs and practices grounded in scientifically based research (SBR) are not fads or untested ideas; they have proven track records of success. By funding such programs, No Child Left Behind encourages their use, as opposed to the use of untried programs that may later turn out to be fads. Furthermore, No Child Left Behind's accountability requirements bring real consequences to those schools that continually demonstrate minimal or no improvement to student achievement as a result of using programs and practices for which there is no evidence of success.Evidence-based programs are the intermediate step in the process toward the development of research-based programs. They utilize randomized central trials and show strong indications of successful classroom strategies.
49Evaluating an Educational Intervention for Research Worthiness Is the intervention backed by “strong” evidence of effectiveness?Randomized controlled trials that are well-designed and implementedTrials showing effectiveness in 2 or more typical school settingsTrials in schools similar to your school[read slide]Well-designed and implemented randomized controlled trials are considered the “gold standard” for evaluating an intervention’s effectiveness, in fields such as medicine, welfare and employment policy, and psychology.Randomized controlled trials are studies that randomly assign individuals to an intervention group or to a control group, in order to measure the effects of theintervention.For example, suppose you want to test, in a randomized controlled trial, whether a new math curriculum for third-graders is more effective than your school’s existing math curriculum for third-graders. You would randomly assign a large number of third-grade students to either an intervention group, which uses the new curriculum, or to a control group, which uses the existing curriculum. You would then measure the math achievement of both groups over time. The difference in math achievement between the two groups would represent the effect of the new curriculum compared to the existing curriculum.In a variation on this basic concept, sometimes individuals are randomly assigned to two or more intervention groups as well as to a control group, in order to measure the effects of different interventions in one trial. Also, in some trials, entire classrooms, schools, or school districts―rather than individual students―are randomly assigned to intervention and control groups.There are compelling reasons why randomized controlled trials are a critical factor in establishing “strong” evidence of an intervention’s effectiveness.
50Examples of Effective Evidence-Based Interventions Tutoring by qualified tutors for at-risk readers Grades 1-3.Life skills training for junior high students effective in reducing smoking and substance abuse.Reduced class size Grades K-3 raises Stanford scores in reading & math.If practitioners have the tools to identify evidence-based interventions, they may be able to spark major improvements in their schools and, collectively, in American education.As illustrative examples of the potential impact of evidence-based interventions on educational outcomes, the following have been found to be effective in randomized controlled trials―research’s “gold standard” for establishing what works.[indicate first bullet]■ One-on-one tutoring by qualified tutors for at-risk readers in grades 1-3 (the average tutored student reads more proficiently than approximately 75% of the untutored students in the control group).[indicate second bullet]■ Life-Skills Training for junior high students (low-cost, replicable program reduces smoking by 20% and serious levels of substance abuse by about 30% by the end of high school, compared to the control group).[indicate last bullet]■ Reducing class size in grades K-3 (the average student in small classes scores higher on the Stanford Achievement Test in reading/math than about 60% of students in regular-sized classes).(continued on next slide)Sources:Identifying and Implementing Educational Practices Supported by Rigorous Evidence: A User Friendly Guide, U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, December 2003
51More Examples of Effective Evidence-Based Interventions Phonemic awareness and phonics helps early readers read more proficiently.High-quality, educational child care and preschool for low-income children reduces special education placements by age 15.(continued from previous slide)[read first bullet]■ Instruction for early readers in phonemic awareness and phonics (the average student in these interventions reads more proficiently than approximately 70% of students in the control group).[read second bullet]Preliminary evidence from randomized controlled trials suggests the effectiveness of the following:■ High-quality, educational child care and preschool for low-income children (by age 15, reduces special education placements and grade retentions by nearly 50% compared to controls; by age 21, more than doubles the proportion attending four-year college and reduces the percentage of teenage parents by 44%).Note: Further research is needed to translate this finding into broadly replicable programs shown effective in typical classroom or community settings.The U. S. Department of Education advocates using a medical model for judging educational interventions as effective. Life and health in America have been profoundly improved over the past 50 years by the use of medical practices demonstrated effective in randomized controlled trials. Welfare policy has similarly been influenced by randomized trials in their successes with moving people from welfare into the workforce.Additional ResourceMore information on SBR is provided in the Title I SBR training module.
52Reading First Program Five key components of a reading program: Phonemic awarenessPhonicsReading fluencyVocabulary developmentReading comprehension strategies[read slide]Read First New Jersey has identified comprehensive reading programs for the purposes of Reading First that provide direct and systematic instruction in phonological awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension. This approved K-3 reading program list includes both Core and Supplemental reading programs.Source:Reading First:
53Title I Teacher Training Module Parental InvolvementParental Involvement is a key component of NCLB and Title I.A component of student success is involving parents in their child’s learning.The National PTA standards indicate that a successful parental involvement program will include the following elements:Communication between home and school is regular, two-way, and meaningful.Responsible parenting is promoted and supported.Parents play an integral role in assisting student learning.Parents are welcome in the school, and their support and assistance are sought.Parents are full partners in the decisions that affect children and families.Community resources are made available to strengthen school programs, family practices, and student learning.Source:National PTA:
54Positive ResultsThe most accurate predictor of a student’s achievement in school is not income or social status, but the extent to which that student’s family is able to:Create a home environment that encourages learning.Communicate high, yet reasonable, expectations for their children’s achievement and future careers.Become involved in their children’s education at school and in the community.[read slide]“Children’s educational academic achievement scores do go up when there’s parent involvement, when there’s good relationships between the home and the school, because those relationships serve to motivate students to achieve at the level their ability enables them to.” Joe D’Amico, Rural Audio Journal, vol.3, no.3, North Central Regional Educational Laboratory, 1995.Sources:Rural Audio Journal, vol.3, no.3, Joe D’Amico, North Central Regional Educational Laboratory, 1995:Families and Schools Together:
55Research on Parental Involvement Parental involvement has shown the following benefits:An increase in student academic achievementA decrease in behavioral issues such as violence and drug abuseBetter attendancePositive attitudesLower drop-out rates[read slide]Over 30 years of research has proven beyond dispute the positive connection between parent involvement and student success. Effectively engaging parents and families in the education of their children has the potential to be far more transformational than any other type of education reform.Additional ReferencesThe most comprehensive research on parent involvement and its effect on student achievement is a series of publications developed by Anne Henderson and Nancy Berla. This research cites more than 85 studies. The publications, listed below, document the profound and comprehensive benefits for students, families, and schools when parents and family members become participants in their children’s education and their lives.The Evidence Grows (1981)The Evidence Continues to Grow (1987)A New Generation of Evidence: The Family Is Critical to Student Achievement (1995)A New Wave of Evidence: The Impact of School, Family and Community Connections on Student Achievement (2002)Studies show the importance of parent involvement to the learning process. Jeanne R. Paratore in “Home and School Together: Helping Beginning Readers Succeed” draws the connection between success in reading and parent-child storybook reading sessions. Taken from After Early Intervention, Then What?: Teaching Struggling Readers in Grades 3 and Beyond, by Rachael L. McCormack and Jeanne R. Paratore, International Reading Association, 2003.HANDOUT: “Families + Schools = Student Success”Sources:National PTA:Southwest Educational Development Laboratory:After Early Intervention, Then What?: Teaching Struggling Readers in Grades 3 and Beyond, by Rachael L. McCormack and Jeanne R. Paratore, International Reading Association, 2003.
56District and School Plans NCLB requires schools and districts to implement parental involvement plans.[read slide]While parent involvement is required as part of Title I and NCLB, it also makes good sense. Research shows strong evidence of the connection between parent involvement and student success.A study conducted in May 2004 examined several high-performing New Jersey school districts to identify which “best practices” contributed to the success of student achievement. The study entitled, “Curriculum and Culture: Findings from New Jersey’s Illustrative Best Practices Study,” was sponsored by the Business Coalition for Educational Excellence at the New Jersey Chamber of Commerce and conducted by a team of education researchers at Rutgers University, including William A. Firestone, Roberta Y. Schorr, and Philip E. Mackey. One of the best practices was “Strong Community Support.” The study states, “Communication between school and home tended to be frequent, timely and effective. Parents tended to monitor their children’s progress and participate in school activities….” The study is available on the following Web site:Teachers can be an important resource to parents, encouraging them to work with their children at home, providing them with material, and maintaining frequent contact with the parents.Handout: “Conference Planner; Determining Conferencing Practices”: 175.htmlHandout: “Measure of School, Family, and Community Partnerships”: The schools can use a self-assessment to determine their level of parent involvement.Handout: “Preventing and Resolving Parent-Teacher Differences,” Lilian G. Katz, and others, ERIC Digest, 1996:Source:
57Collaboration Required by Title I Districts must include parents in the development of their parent involvement policy.Schools must develop a School-Parent Compact that outlines how parents, school staff, and students will share responsibility for improved student academic achievement.In some cases, Title I funds must be set aside for parent involvement activities (1% of allocations over $500,000).Title I requires a robust collaboration between the schools and the community, including parents. Parent involvement is key to the success of the students. Under NCLB, parents have more flexibility and options to take an active role in their children’s education.[read first bullet]Parent Involvement Policy: Under NCLB, the written parent involvement policy must be coordinated on both the district and school levels. The district and the school are required under section 1118 to develop parental involvement policies and ensure that parents are included in the planning process, in the improvement of their child’s academic development, and to build capacity for parental involvement.[read second bullet]School-Parent Compact: The School-Parent Compact outlines how parents, the entire school staff, and students will share the responsibility for improved student academic achievement and the means by which the school and parents will build and develop a partnership to help children achieve the state’s high standards. In addition, the school-parent compact must also describe the school’s responsibility to provide high-quality curriculum and instruction in a supportive and effective learning environment and address the importance of communication between teachers and parents on an on-going basis through, at a minimum, the following:Parent-teacher conferences in elementary schools, at least annually.Frequent reports to parents on their children’s progress.Reasonable access to staff, opportunities to volunteer and participate in theirchild’s class, and observation of classroom activities.[read last bullet]Title I Fund Reserve: For districts that receive a Title I grant in excess of $500,000, 1% must be set aside specifically for parent involvement activities in eligible schools. Ninety-five percent of these funds should be dedicated to school-level activities.Source:NCLB Section 1118
58Building CapacityThrough the NCLB “14 Activities to Build Capacity for Parental Involvement,” the schools and district will ensure effective partnerships between the parents and community and the school. Six activities are required; eight are suggested. NCLB Section 1118[read slide and indicate the handout]The following 14 activities are provided in NCLB for Title I schools and districts to implement. These activities will help ensure effective parental involvement and support partnerships between the school and the community to improve student academic achievement. The first six activities are required; the remainder are optional.[participants can read these on their own]Must provide assistance to parents in understanding such topics as the state’s academic content standards and local academic assessments, the requirements of this section of NCLB, and how to monitor a child’s progress and work with educators to improve the achievement of their children.Must provide materials and training to help parents to work with their children to improve their children’s achievement, such as literacy training and using technology, as appropriate, to foster parent involvement.Must educate staff in the value and utility of the contribution of parents, in how to reach out to, communicate with, and work with parents as equal partners, implement and coordinate parent programs, and build ties between parents and the school.Must coordinate and integrate parent involvement programs and activities with other related programs.Must ensure that information related to school and parent programs, meetings, and other activities is sent to the parents of the participating children in a format and language that parents can understand.Must provide reasonable support for parental involvement activities under this section as parents may request.May involve parents in the development of training for teachers, principals, and other educators to improve the effectiveness of training.May provide necessary literacy training through funds received under Title I, Part A if the district has exhausted all other reasonably available sources of funding for this training.May pay reasonable and necessary expenses associated with local parental involvement activities, including transportation and childcare costs, to enable parents to participate in school-related meetings and training services.May train parents to enhance the involvement of other parents.May arrange school meetings at a variety of times, or conduct in-home conferences between teachers or other educators with parents who are unable to attend conferences at school.May adopt and implement model approaches to improving parental involvement.May establish a district-wide parent advisory council to provide advice on all matters related to parental involvement.May develop appropriate roles for community-based organizations and businesses in parent involvement activities.HANDOUT: “14 Activities to Build Capacity for Parental Involvement”Source:NCLB Section 1118
59Parental Notifications Required by Title I Notifications must be in a format and language that parents will understand.Letter informing parents of school’s improvement status and notification of school choice and SES optionsLetter about teacher qualifications (Parents’ Right-to-Know section 1111)Title I requires that parents be notified of various conditions at their child’s school.[read first bullet]Choice: If their child’s school is placed in “improvement” status under NCLB criteria, that is, the school does not meet AYP for two consecutive years, parents must be advised before the start of the school year of their option to transfer their child to another district public school that is not in improvement status or designated as “persistently dangerous.”[read second bullet]Teacher Qualifications: It is the responsibility of districts and schools to notify parents of each student that certain information may be requested and provided by the district (LEA) in a timely manner. The Parents’ Right-to-Know (NCLB section 1111) requires the local school to provide each individual parent with information related to the qualifications and skills of teachers and should also include the following:Information on the level of achievement of the parent’s child in each of the stateacademic assessments.Timely notification that the parent’s child has been assigned or has been taught for 4or more consecutive weeks by a teacher who is not highly qualified.This is detailed later in the HQT section of this presentation.(continued on next page)Sources:NCLB Section 1111(h)Public School Choice Non-Regulatory Guidance, USDE, February 6, 2004:
60Parental Notifications Required by Title I (cont.) Letter for placement of a limited English proficient (LEP) child in an English language instruction programSchool Report Card and NCLB Report CardNAEP notification(continued from previous page)[read first bullet]English Language Proficiency: The district must implement an effective means of outreach to parents of limited English proficient (LEP) students to inform the parents how they can be involved in assisting their children in attaining English proficiency, achieve at high levels in the core academic subjects, and meet challenging state academic achievement standards. The communication must include information about the instructional methods, exit requirements for the instruction program, among others.[read second bullet]Report Cards: The state provides information to parents on districts’ and schools’ total and disaggregated assessment results. They also supply 2-year trends by subject area and grade level, adequate yearly progress indicators, qualifications of New Jersey’s teachers, and other information. The information is posted on the state Web site at[read third bullet]NAEP: Parents of children selected for the NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) test must be notified that their child was selected for the test. Notification must occur before the assessment is given, be on school letterhead, dated and signed. Parents must be told their child may be excused from NAEP and not required to answer all test questions.Sources:Parental Involvement, Title I, Part A, Non-Regulatory Guidance, USDE, April 23, 2004:
61Parent Options for Schools Identified for Improvement Intradistrict Choice: Parents of all children in a school identified for improvement may choose to transfer their child to another “available” public school in the district. The choice school cannot also be in improvement status or identified as “persistently dangerous.”SES: During the second year of improvement status, or if choice is not an option in the first year, eligible students must be offered supplemental educational services, provided by state-approved vendors.A school is placed in improvement status if it does not make adequate yearly progress (AYP) for two consecutive years.[read first bullet]When schools do not meet state targets for improving the achievement of all students (AYP), parents need to have options, including the option to send their child to another school. NCLB responds to that need by giving parents of children enrolled in schools that receive Title I funding and identified for “school improvement” the opportunity to transfer their children to a school that has not been so identified. These provisions of the statute, along with other elements that focus new attention and resources on turning around the schools identified for improvement, are critical mechanisms for achieving the vision embodied in NCLB, a high-quality education for all children.[read second bullet]If the school does not make AYP the next year, then supplemental education services (SES) must be offered to eligible children at that school. If the school does not make AYP the next year, it goes into corrective action. If the school does not make AYP for the next two years, it will go into restructuring. A schedule of sanctions applies for each consecutive year of not meeting AYP including development and implementation of improvement plans, technical assistance, and possible school review by an external team (CAPA).Handout: “Resources for Parents”Source:NCLB Section 1116
62Follow-up ActivitySample School A shows gaps in both LAL and math for subgroups African-American, Hispanic, LEP, and Special Ed. The school needs to actively engage the parents to be more involved and supportive of the school endeavors. Parents can be provided with some lessons that the students can work on at home.INTERACTIVE ACTIVITY: Using the results from Sample School A, have the participants break up into small groups and identify some parent involvement activities to address the achievement gaps of the deficient subgroups.To the presenter:Have the participants use slide 22, “Sample School Results School A Elementary School” for this activity. Allow 15 minutes for this activity.Have them reference the handout “14 Activities to Build Capacity for Parental Involvement.”
63Title I Teacher Training Module Highly Qualified Teachersand High-QualityProfessional Development
64Title I Teacher Training Module Highly Qualified Teachers
65The Federal Context: NCLB The Highly Qualified Teacher initiative is a federal mandate that requires states to demonstrate the alignment between teachers’ academic preparation and their content area teaching assignments through each state’s licensing system.Teachers’ content expertise is the strongest predictor of student achievement.[read first bullet]While the highly qualified teacher (HQT) requirement, because of its name, seems to be about individual teachers and the level of service they provide to students, it is really about state licensing systems and the alignment between teacher preparation and work assignments.The federal government requires all states to show the relationship between teachers’ preparation and academic content expertise and their actual work assignment through the state’s licensing system.[read second bullet]Research makes clear that teachers who have a strong command of the academic content they teach are more likely to help students achieve at high levels. This is why the federal emphasis is on teachers’ content knowledge.While teaching skills are certainly very important as well, teachers who have great teaching skills, but who lack broad and deep knowledge of the academic content they teach, will be far less effective in helping students achieve the content standards.Source:Designing Professional Development for Teachers of Science and Mathematics, by Susan Loucks-Horsley, Peter Hewson, Nancy Love, and Katherine Stiles, National Institute for Science Education, Corwin Press, thousand Oaks, CA, 1998.
66Highly Qualified Teacher Requirements At least a bachelor’s degreeStandard certification (no emergency or conditional certification)Proof of content area expertise in the core academic content area(s) the teacher teachesElementary generalistsMiddle and secondary content specialistsSpecial education and ESL teachersThere are three components involved in satisfying the HQT requirement:[indicate first bullet]Teachers must have at least a bachelor’s degree.[indicate second bullet]Teachers must have a valid standard New Jersey instructional certificate for which no requirements have been waived. Provisional certificates from either the traditional or alternate route are considered standard certificates for this purpose. Emergency, conditional, and substitute certificates are not standard certificates.[indicate third bullet]Teachers must demonstrate their content expertise in the core academic subject(s) they teach.Elementary teachers and special education teachers who provide direct instruction in elementary grades or content qualify across the range of subjects they teach as generalists.Middle and secondary teachers working in departmentalized settings and special education teachers teaching middle or secondary content qualify in each individual subject area they teach.ESL teachers qualify as ESL teachers to teach English/language arts to English Language Learners.Sources:The New Jersey Model for Identifying Highly Qualified Teachers, SeptemberNCLB Section 1119
67Which Teachers Must Document Their Qualifications? All teachers with responsibility for direct instruction in one or more core academic subjects, including elementary generalistsSpecial education teachers who provide direct instruction in one or more core academic subjects[read first bullet]The highly qualified teacher requirements apply only to teachers providing direct instruction in core academic subjects.[read second bullet]Special educators who do not directly instruct students in core academic subjects or who provide only consultation to highly qualified teachers in adapting curricula, using behavioral supports and interventions, or selecting appropriate accommodations, do not need to demonstrate subject-matter competency in those subjects.Source:The New Jersey Model for Identifying Highly Qualified Teachers:
68Core Academic Content Areas Language ArtsReadingEnglishScienceMathematicsHistoryGovernmentGeographyEconomicsArtsCivicsForeign LanguagesNCLB Section 9101 identifies these subject areas [indicate slide] as core academic content areas.The NJ CCCS that align with this list are: language arts literacy, science, mathematics, social studies, world languages, and visual and performing arts. Teachers in these areas must satisfy the federal requirements for HQT.Sources:NCLB Section 9101Accountability Workbook
69Title I Teachers and HQT Requirements Expedited timeline for qualifying:Teachers in Title I schools hired after September 1, 2002, must satisfy the definition at the time of hire.Veteran teachers working in all schools prior to 2002 have until June 2006 to satisfy the requirement.[indicate or read first two bullets]While teachers in non-Title I schools and veteran teachers hired prior to 2002 have until June 2006 to satisfy the HQT requirement, teachers working in Title I schoolwide schools and targeted assistance programs are responsible to satisfy the requirement at the time of hire.Because the middle school Praxis II exams have only recently become available in New Jersey, the NJDOE is encouraging districts to use common sense in hiring the most qualified, fully certified teachers they can find and support their efforts to satisfy the highly qualified teacher requirement as quickly as possible.While districts are not required to terminate teachers who do not yet satisfy the HQT requirement and are not barred from hiring them, eligibility for continued employment may rest on passing the appropriate Praxis II exam(s).[indicate third bullet]Teachers in schools that receive Title I funds for targeted assistance programs, but who do not teach in the targeted assistance program and who are not paid in whole or in part with Title I funds, have until June 2006 to satisfy the HQT requirement. However, parent notification requirements will apply to them and to veteran teachers.Source:The New Jersey Model for Identifying Highly Qualified Teachers
70Title I Teachers and HQT Requirements (cont.) Use of the NJ HOUSE Standard Content Knowledge MatrixFirst-year teachers in Title I schools may not use the NJ HOUSE Standard Content Knowledge Matrix to satisfy the requirement.Veteran Title I teachers and experienced teachers newly hired in Title I schools may use the NJ HOUSE Standard Content Knowledge Matrix.[read slide]The federal government has directed each state to establish its own alternate criteria, a High Objective Uniform State Evaluation (HOUSE) Standard by which veteran teachers can demonstrate that they satisfy the highly qualified requirement. New Jersey used the NJ HOUSE Standard Content Knowledge Matrix.
71Content ExpertiseThe highly qualified requirement focuses on content knowledge. An education degree is not sufficient without demonstrating content expertise in the core academic content the teacher teaches.[read slide]The highly qualified requirement applies to the following:Elementary teachers and special education teachers who provide direct instruction in elementary grades or content must qualify across the range of subjects they teach as generalists. They demonstrate their expertise by passing the Praxis II Elementary Content Knowledge test or, if applicable, the NJ HOUSE Standard Content Knowledge Matrix.Middle and secondary teachers working in departmentalized settings and special education teachers teaching middle or secondary content must qualify in each individual subject area they teach. They demonstrate their expertise by any one of the five federal criteria:- Passing score on the appropriate Praxis II Middle of K-12 Content Knowledge test- Undergraduate major in the content area- 30 credits equivalent to a major in the content area- Graduate degree in the content area- Advanced credential such as National Board certification in the contentVeteran teachers may also use the NJ HOUSE Standard: The Content Knowledge Matrix to demonstrate their content expertise in each core academic subject they teach.ESL teachers must qualify as ESL teachers to teach English/language arts to English language Learners.A graduate degree in administration is not tied to a core academic content area and would not satisfy the highly qualified teacher requirement.Handout: “NJ HOUSE Standard: The Content Knowledge Matrix”Handout: “Content Area Expertise”Sources:NCLB Section 9101The New Jersey Model for Identifying Highly Qualified Teachers
72Parent Notification and HQT Requirements Parent Notification Requirements apply to schools receiving any level of Title I funding.In September, Title I schools must inform parents of their right to inquire about the credentials of their child’s teachers.[read slide]Parent notification requirements apply broadly to all schools receiving any level of Title I funding, whether schoolwide or targeted assistance. Requirements apply even though some teaching staff may have until June 2006 to satisfy the requirement.The first parent notification letter is sent in September and informs parents of their right to inquire about the credentials held by their child’s teachers. It does not name individual teachers and is sent to the entire school community. The New Jersey Model for Identifying Highly Qualified Teachers offers a sample letter districts may use or modify for this purpose.Parents Right-to-Know – NCLB Section 1111At the beginning of the school year districts must notify parents, in a manner that is practical and understandable, of the professional qualifications of their child’s teachers with the following requirements:- Whether the teacher has met state qualifications and licensing criteria.Whether the teacher is under emergency or provisional status.Whether the teacher has a B.A., certification in the discipline field, and other pertinent education.Whether the child is provided services by paraprofessionals, and, if so, their qualifications.Source:NCLB Section 1111
73Title I Teachers and HQT Requirements (cont.) By November 1, Title I schools must inform parents which of their child’s teachers have not yet satisfied the HQT requirement―even if teachers have until June 2006 to satisfy the requirement.The second parent notification letter is sent after a child has been taught for at least four weeks by a teacher who has not yet satisfied the HQT requirement. It is sent only to the parents of the children in the given teacher’s class and not to the entire school community. The New Jersey Model for Identifying Highly Qualified Teachers offers a sample letter districts may use or modify for this purpose. This requirement is included in NCLB Section 1111, Parents Right-to-Know.Many districts encourage teachers to write an accompanying letter describing what they are doing to meet the federal requirement.Source:NCLB Section 1111
742004 HQT Survey Results (Percent of classes taught by HQTs) ElementaryMiddle/HSAll Schools96.3%90.5%High Poverty Schools91%81.1%Low PovertySchools98.6%94.5%In the Spring of 2004, the NJDOE surveyed the state’s school districts to determine baseline data after the first year of implementing the HQT requirement. The table above indicates the most general information. Note that in high poverty schools there is a slightly lower percentage of classes taught by those who satisfy the HQT requirement. Under NCLB, by June 2006 all classes must be taught by those who satisfy the HQT requirement.Source:Federal Requirement: By June 2006, 100% of classes must be taught by highly qualified teachers
75Highly Qualified Teacher Resources The New Jersey Model for Identifying Highly Qualified Teachers ( edition) is available on NJDOE Web site: helpline for questions:The New Jersey Model for Identifying Highly Qualified Teachers contains all the information and forms necessary to determine a teacher’s standing with regard to the HQT requirement.[indicate Web site in first bullet]The NJDOE also maintains an helpline for questions regarding satisfying the HQT requirement: Questions are answered by staff in the Office of Academic and Professional Standards.
76Title I Teacher Training Module High-QualityProfessional Development
77A New Vision of High-Quality Professional Development “It’s not ‘what counts’ it’s what matters.”- Willa Spicer*High-quality professional learning focuses not on accruing hours but on achieving results―the improved learning of all students.[read slide]Historically, districts have provided one-shot or short-term in-service workshops. These have been shown to be ineffective.Effective professional development should be sustained and intensive, with modeling, coaching, and problem solving; collaborative endeavors in which educators share knowledge; experiential opportunities that engage teachers in actual teaching, assessment, and observation; and activities that are grounded in research but also draw from teacher experience and inquiry, and are connected to teachers’ classes, students, and subjects taught.We must focus on how the professional development we plan and take part in will translate into results for students.*Willa Spicer, New Jersey Educator; Former Assistant Superintendent, South Brunswick School District; M.A. Harvard University; Project Director for NJ Performance Assessment Alliance, NJ Principals and Supervisors Association; US Department of Education Site Visitor, National School Recognition Program; Princeton Center for Leadership Training; Director, Project CREATE; author of several publications
78High-Quality Professional Learning SustainedIntensiveClassroom-focusedResearch-basedAligned with state standards and assessmentsThe federal definition of high-quality professional development requires the elements listed above. [read list]High-quality professional development focuses on increasing teachers’ knowledge of the academic content they teach as well as the content-specific instructional strategies needed to deliver that content.It focuses on helping teachers learn to gather and use data to improve instruction and support all students in achieving challenging state content standards.
79Principles of Effective Professional Development District frameworkResearch-based principlesNetwork of instructorsData-driven decision-makingEffective, Comprehensive, Ongoing Professional DevelopmentNew strategies for improving instruction include a coordinated professional development program with the following elements:[read first bullet]Districts implement a framework to support instructional improvement that includes a vision focused on student learning and instructional improvement; system wide curricula connected to state standards; accountability; data analysis; research-based programs; allocation of resources; and a coherent set of strategies to improve instruction.Significant connections exist between district visions and school strategies to improve instruction.Resource allocation is targeted to improve instruction.[read second bullet]Districts and schools use research-based principles to guide professional development implementation.[read third bullet]Districts create networks of instructional leaders that provide significant support to teachers.[read fourth bullet]Professional development decisions are based on needs that emerge from data analysis.Taken from Beyond Islands of Excellence: What Districts Can Do to Improve Instruction and Achievement in All Schools―A Leadership Brief, A Project of the Learning First Alliance, Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, Washington, DC,All districts must have a professional development plan.Handout: “Effective Professional Development” NJ Professional Development Standards Board, NJDOE:Source:
80Title I Professional Development Requirements Title I funds may be used for professional development of Title I teachersDistricts must reserve 5% of their Title I allocation for professional developmentSchools identified as in need of improvement must set aside 10% of their Title I school allocation for professional developmentNCLB Section 1119(c)(1)(F) requires Title I districts to provide opportunities for professional development using Title I resources, and to the extent practicable, from other sources, for teachers, principals, and paraprofessionals, including, if appropriate, pupil services personnel, parents, and other staff, who work with participating children in Title I programs.[read slide]Handout: “NJDOE’s Support for Professional Development”Source:NCLB Section 1119
81Title I Teacher Training Module ParaprofessionalRequirements
82Paraprofessional Responsibilities Apply to instructional paraprofessionals funded by Title I: Provide one-on-one tutoring Assist with classroom management Provide computer assistance Conduct parent activities Provide library support Translate Provide instructional assistanceParaprofessional Responsibilities NCLB Section 1119(g)(2)A Title I-funded paraprofessional may be assigned the following duties: [read text as each bullet is indicated]Provide one-on-one tutoring for eligible students, if the tutoring is scheduled at a time when a student would not otherwise receive instruction from a teacher.Assist with classroom management, such as organizing instructional and other materials.Provide assistance in a computer laboratory.Conduct parental involvement activities.Provide support in a library or media center.Act as a translator.Provide instructional services to students in accordance with the following:− May not provide any instructional service to a student unless the paraprofessional is working under the direct supervision of a teacher.− May assume limited duties that are assigned to similar personnel who are not working in a program supported with funds under Title I, including duties beyond classroom instruction or that do not benefit participating children, so long as the amount of time spent on such duties is the same proportion of total work time as prevails with respect to similar personnel at the same school.Note: Applies only to Title I-funded paraprofessionals.Sources:Accountability WorkbookNCLB Section 1119
83Paraprofessional Qualifications Must meet one of the following:Two years of study at institution of higher educationAssociate’s degreeParaprofessional Performance/Portfolio AssessmentUse of Title I FundsUnder NCLB Section 1119(h), school districts can use Title I funds to support ongoing training and professional development to assist teachers and paraprofessionals in meeting their required certification.[read slide]What are the qualification requirements for Title I paraprofessionals?(1) All Title I paraprofessionals must have a secondary school diploma or its recognized equivalent.(2) Additionally, except as noted below, paraprofessionals hired after January 8, 2002, and working in a program supported with Title I, Part A funds must meet one of the following criteria:Completed two years of study at an institution of higher education.Obtained an associate’s (or higher) degree.Met a rigorous standard of quality and be able to demonstrate, through a formal state or local academic assessment, knowledge of and the ability to assist in instructing, reading, writing, and mathematics (or, as appropriate, reading readiness, writing readiness, and mathematics readiness).Paraprofessionals hired on or before January 8, 2002, and working in a program supported with Title I, Part A funds must meet these requirements by January 8, [Section 1119(c) and (d) of Title I]Paraprofessionals who only serve as translators or who only conduct parental involvement activities must have a secondary school diploma or its equivalent but do not have to meet these additional requirements. [Section 1119(e)]Sources:Accountability WorkbookNCLB Section 1119
84The Greatest Challenge for Title I: Changing the Culture of “Can’t” The transformational change agent says, “Here is the standard, which I know is impossible, so let’s stand together and learn our way into a higher level of performance.”- Robert Quinn[read slide]Source:Robert Quinn is the author of Change the World: How Ordinary People Can Achieve Extraordinary Results. He is a professor in the MBA and Executive Education Programs at the University of Michigan and a fellow of the World Business Academy.