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Timberlake LecturePLUS1 Chapter 9 Empirical Formulas.

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1 Timberlake LecturePLUS1 Chapter 9 Empirical Formulas

2 Timberlake LecturePLUS2 Types of Formulas The formulas for compounds can be expressed as an empirical formula and as a molecular(true) formula. Empirical Molecular (true)Name CHC 2 H 2 acetylene CHC 6 H 6 benzene CO 2 CO 2 carbon dioxide CH 2 OC 5 H 10 O 5 ribose

3 Timberlake LecturePLUS3 Empirical Formulas Write your own one-sentence definition for each of the following: Empirical formula Molecular formula

4 Timberlake LecturePLUS4 An empirical formula represents the simplest whole number ratio of the atoms in a compound. The molecular formula is the true or actual ratio of the atoms in a compound.

5 Timberlake LecturePLUS5 Learning Check EF-1 A. What is the empirical formula for C 4 H 8 ? 1) C 2 H 4 2) CH 2 3) CH B. What is the empirical formula for C 8 H 14 ? 1) C 4 H 7 2) C 6 H 12 3) C 8 H 14 C. What is a molecular formula for CH 2 O? 1) CH 2 O2) C 2 H 4 O 2 3) C 3 H 6 O 3

6 Timberlake LecturePLUS6 Solution EF-1 A. What is the empirical formula for C 4 H 8 ? 2) CH 2 B. What is the empirical formula for C 8 H 14 ? 1) C 4 H 7 C. What is a molecular formula for CH 2 O? 1) CH 2 O2) C 2 H 4 O 2 3) C 3 H 6 O 3

7 Timberlake LecturePLUS7 Learning Check EF-2 If the molecular formula has 4 atoms of N, what is the molecular formula if SN is the empirical formula? Explain. 1) SN 2) SN 4 3) S 4 N 4

8 Timberlake LecturePLUS8 Solution EF-2 If the molecular formula has 4 atoms of N, what is the molecular formula if SN is the empirical formula? Explain. 3) S 4 N 4 If the actual formula has 4 atoms of N, and S is related 1:1, then there must also be 4 atoms of S.

9 Timberlake LecturePLUS9 Empirical and Molecular Formulas molar mass = a whole number = n simplest mass n = 1 molar mass = empirical mass molecular formula = empirical formula n = 2 molar mass = 2 x empirical mass molecular formula = 2 x empirical formula molecular formula = or > empirical formula

10 Timberlake LecturePLUS10 Empirical Formula Empirical Mass Molecular Formula Molecular Mass

11 Timberlake LecturePLUS11 Learning Check EF-3 A compound has a formula mass of and an empirical formula of C 3 H 4 O 3. What is the molecular formula? 1) C 3 H 4 O 3 2) C 6 H 8 O 6 3) C 9 H 12 O 9

12 Timberlake LecturePLUS12 Solution EF-3 A compound has a formula mass of and an empirical formula of C 3 H 4 O 3. What is the molecular formula? 2)C 6 H 8 O 6 C 3 H 4 O 3 = 88.0 g/EF g =

13 Timberlake LecturePLUS13 Learning Check EF-4 If there are g of O in the molecular formula, what is the true formula if the EF is C 7 H 6 O 4 ? 1) C 7 H 6 O 4 2) C 14 H 12 O 8 3) C 21 H 18 O 12

14 Timberlake LecturePLUS14 Solution EF-4 If there are g of O in the molecular formula, what is the true formula if the EF is C 7 H 6 O 4 ? 3) C 21 H 18 O g O = 3 x O 4 or 3 x C 7 H 6 O g O in EF

15 Timberlake LecturePLUS15 Finding the Molecular Formula A compound is Cl 71.65%, C 24.27%, and H 4.07%. What are the empirical and molecular formulas? The molar mass is known to be 99.0 g/mol. 1. State mass percents as grams in a g sample of the compound. Cl gC g H 4.07 g

16 Timberlake LecturePLUS16 2. Calculate the number of moles of each element g Cl x 1 mol Cl = 2.02 mol Cl 35.5 g Cl g C x 1 mol C = 2.02 mol C 12.0 g C 4.07 g H x 1 mol H = 4.04 mol H 1.01 g H

17 Timberlake LecturePLUS17 Why moles? Why do you need the number of moles of each element in the compound?

18 Timberlake LecturePLUS18 3. Find the smallest whole number ratio by dividing each mole value by the smallest mole values: Cl: 2.02 = 1 Cl 2.02 C: 2.02 = 1 C 2.02 H: 4.04 = 2 H Write the simplest or empirical formula CH 2 Cl

19 Timberlake LecturePLUS19 5. EM (empirical mass) = 1(C) + 2(H) + 1(Cl) = n = molar mass/empirical mass Molar mass = 99.0 g/mol = n = 2 E M 49.5 g/EM 7.Molecular formula (CH 2 Cl) 2 = C 2 H 4 Cl 2

20 Timberlake LecturePLUS20 Learning Check EF-5 Aspirin is 60.0% C, 4.5 % H and 35.5 O. Calculate its simplest formula. In 100 g of aspirin, there are 60.0 g C, 4.5 g H, and 35.5 g O.

21 Timberlake LecturePLUS21 Solution EF g C x ___________= ______ mol C 4.5 g H x ___________ = _______mol H 35.5 g O x ___________ = _______mol O

22 Timberlake LecturePLUS22 Solution EF g C x 1 mol C = 5.00 mol C 12.0 g C 4.5 g H x 1 mol H = 4.5 mol H 1.01 g H 35.5 g O x 1mol O= 2.22 mol O 16.0 g O

23 Timberlake LecturePLUS23 Divide by the smallest # of moles mol C = ________________ ______ mol O 4.5 mol H = ________________ ______ mol O 2.22 mol O = ________________ ______ mol O Are are the results whole numbers?_____

24 Timberlake LecturePLUS24 Divide by the smallest # of moles mol C = ___2.25__ 2.22 mol O 4.5 mol H = ___2.00__ 2.22 mol O 2.22 mol O = ___1.00__ 2.22 mol O Are are the results whole numbers?_____

25 Timberlake LecturePLUS25 Finding Subscripts A fraction between 0.1 and 0.9 must not be rounded. Multiply all results by an integer to give whole numbers for subscripts. (1/2) 0.5 x 2 = 1 (1/3)0.333 x 3 = 1 (1/4)0.25 x 4 = 1 (3/4)0.75 x 4 = 3

26 Timberlake LecturePLUS26 Multiply everything x 4 C: 2.25 mol C x 4 = 9 mol C H: 2.0 mol Hx 4 = 8 mol H O: 1.00 mol O x 4 = 4 mol O Use the whole numbers of mols as the subscripts in the simplest formula C 9 H 8 O 4

27 Timberlake LecturePLUS27 Learning Check EF-6 A compound is 27.4% S, 12.0% N and 60.6 % Cl. If the compound has a molar mass of 351 g/mol, what is the molecular formula?

28 Timberlake LecturePLUS28 Solution EF mol S /0.853 = 1 S mol N /0.853 = 1 N 1.71 mol Cl /0.853 = 2 Cl Empirical formula = SNCl 2 = g/EF Mol. Mass/ Empirical mass 351/117.1 = 3 Molecular formula = S 3 N 3 Cl 6


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